This paper describes the influence of the driving frequency on the oscillating behavior of gas pressure and temperature inside a pulse tube refrigerator and the ultimate wall temperature at the cold end. Two types of pulse tube refrigerators, basic and orifice pulse tube refrigerators, are investigated. The length of the pulse tube is 300mm and its diameter is 13mm. The oscillation of the gas pressure and temperature at various points along the pulse tube refrigerator and the wall temperature distribution is obtained as a function of the driving frequency in the range from 1 to 18Hz. The gas pressure oscillation is quite similar at all measuring positions through the pulse tube for both types. However, the gas temperature oscillation differs from location to location along the pulse tube. The wall temperature at the cold end depends on the driving frequency and there exists an optimum range of the frequency within which the lowest value of the wall temperature is attained. It is found that typical frequencies in the optimum range are 3Hz for the basic type and 6Hz for the orifice type. The gas temperature oscillation at lower frequencies can be clearly distinguished from that at frequencies higher than the optimum values. Moreover, it is also shown that the differences in the oscillating behavior between both types are more noticeable at the lower driving frequencies.
Microstructure was primarily determined by the composition ratio in Ag-sheathed Bi2Sr2Ca(1-x)Cu(2-x)Oy superconducting tape. The cation ratio of the raw powder was kept low in Ca and Cu compared to the stoichiometric Bi-2212 composition in order to suppress the second phase such as the coarse Sr-Ca-cuprate phase during the partial melting process. A highly aligned Bi-2212 phase with a small amount of Bi-2201 phase was obtained for the composition of x=0.36. No impurity phases were observed in the boundaries of the Bi-2212 phase by transmission electron microscopy. The best Jc of 1.67×105A/cm2 at 4.2K in zero magnetic field was obtained for the Ag-sheathed tape with the x=0.36 composition. The pancake coils were prepared by the wind-and-react technique. At liquid helium temperature, the sixteen-stacked pancake coils generated a magnetic fi