This paper discusses the exotic magnetic phenomena that are unfamiliar to cryogenic and superconducting engineers. The magnetic effects on water, fuel and air are discussed, then the magnetic effects on chemical reaction, polymerization and crystal growth. Further experimental studies are necessary for a better understanding of these effects, but exotic applied magnetics are a treasure trove of seeds for creating new industry and new business where superconducting magnets will play essential roles.
The rapid increase in the demand for electric power and the reduced load factor in Japan have encouraged the development of SMES (superconducting magnetic energy storage) systems for utility power grid applications. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry launched an 8-year national project to develop and establish the component technologies required to realize a small scale 100kWh/40MW SMES and its practical application in the utility network. The key component technologies developed in the project consist of a superconducting coil, a quench detection system, a power converter, a circuit breaker and a persistent current switch. A model coil for the core of the SMES system has been designed and fabricated. Performance tests in cooperation with The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute were successfully completed in 1996. The following paper describes in detail the test results and their subsequent evaluation. The model coil is presently installed in the test facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in the United States, for long-term excitation testing. The tests are part of an international cooperation plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
A SMES model coil was fabricated as R & D item in the development of component technologies for a 480MJ/20MW SMES pilot plant. The coil consists of four double-pancake windings. The coil is the same diameter but half the number of pancakes that will be needed for a SMES pilot plant. The NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor and superconducting joints between the double pancakes are cooled by a forced flow of supercritical helium. Prior to fabrication, various characteristics of the cable-in-conduit were measured by full-sized short samples from actual conductors and by scaled short samples from scaled conductors. The critical current of the scaled short samples was in agreement with that calculated from one strand of the conductor. The impedance between arbitrary dual-oxide coated strands in the full-size conductor was measured to be smaller than that obtained from two Cr-plated strands, which showed a good degree of stability in another coil. It was estimated that oxide-coated conductors would have high stability. Through fabrication of a model coil, it was demonstrated that a large forced-flow coil for a small-scale 100kWh SMES device could be manufactured.