A cascade of two ring cyclotrons for the RIKEN RI beam factory are being constructed to provide primary heavy ions, up to uranium ions, with energies exceeding 100MeV/nucleon. The one in the second stage is a large-scale superconducting ring cyclotron with six sector magnets. The concept of the superconducting ring cyclotron design and status of the construction of its full-scale prototype are described. Compact superconducting cyclotrons now operating around the world are also introduced.
The reversibility of the magnetic behaviour of superconductors assured by the Meissner effect allows the application of thermodynamics to analyse the macroscopic properties of superconductors. In this second lecture, the fundamentals of electromagnetism and thermodynamics will be reviewed and applied to the analysis of superconductive phenomenon.