For the intermediate state of Type I superconductors described in chapter 5 to exist stably, the boundary energy of the superconducting and normal regions must be positive because a negative boundary energy will induce fine division of the normal and superconducting regions immediately on entrance to the intermediate state to lower the energy as a whole. Magnetic properties and direct observation of the intermediate state show that this is not the case. The London theory, which assumes that the number of superelectrons is constant throughout the superconducting region, gives only a negative boundary energy because of the penetration of the magnetic field passing through the normal region which lowers the magnetic energy of the superconducting region. In the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, however, the number of superelectrons is allowed to change over a coherence length ξ. Therefore, in contrast with the London theory where the number of superelectrons must decrease to zero stepwise at the boundary, the GL theory shows that the number of superelectrons near the boundary may decrease continuously to zero over the coherence length. The decrease of the number of superelectrons will give rise to a positive energy contribution to the boundary energy as a result of the loss in the superconducting condensation energy. It is shown that the boundary energy may be positive or negative, depending on the magnitude of the GL parameter κ=λL/ξ, where λL is the London penetration depth.
The cryogenic tensile behavior of SL-ES30 woven glass-epoxy laminates has been discussed through theoretical and experimental characterizations. The tension tests were conducted in accordance with JIS K 7054 at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). The general specimen geometry was a rectangular dog-bone shape with constant gage length, but with each specimen size having a different specimen width. The experimental finding provides the data for analytical modeling. The model uses two damage variables that are determined from experimental data. A finite element method coupled with damage was adopted for the extensional analysis. The effects of temperature, specimen geometry and gripping method on the tensile properties are examined.
NbTi superconducting multilayer rolled sheet with Nb layers for artificial pinning centers can be manufactured using Cu alloy hardened by precipitation as intermittent layers. The total number of Nb layers is 580, that of NbTi layers is 551, that of Cu-3Ni-0.6Si-0.2Zn intermittent layers is 28 and that of Cu lay