This paper deals with bubble behavior in pool-cooled HTC superconducting coil, which is developed for superconducting transformers to understand the state of the insulation medium in the coil at the quenching condition and to find an effective suppression method of vicious bubble effects on electrical insulation and cryogenic cooling. The tested coil system immersed in liquid nitrogen consisted of two coaxial coil layers wound on FRP frames and a cylindrical ITO film electrode deposited on the outerside of a glass cylinder by ion sputtering, and the axis of electrode system was set vertically. The experiments show that bubbles generated thermally by a heater mounted in the superconducting wire leave from the wire discretely at lower applied voltages, but they turn bubble columns locked in cooling channels at higher applied voltages under the layer-to-layer insulation condition, i.e., boiling on the wire covered with FRP tape changes from nuclear boiling to film boiling by the application of a high electric field to the coolant. At the turn-to-turn insulation condition, bubble coagulation phenomena appear near the inner surface of the glass cylinder, and the coagulated bubbles spout through the cooling channel between coil layer and glass wall. The formation of vapor locking by an electric field can be minimized or controlled by making an inclined path crossing over the barrier between coil turns or pressurizing liquid nitrogen to a subcooled state.
Helium-4 vapor pressure temperature scale between 2.25K and 4.25K is realized according to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 by using an absolute pressure transducer. The pressure measurement system is much simpler than the conventional precision pressure measurement system using a pressure balance and a differential pressure transducer simultaneously. Standard-type rhodium-iron resistance thermometers are calibrated against the realized scale. The combined standard uncertainty of the calibration is estimated to be less than 0.1mK, including the uncertainty of scale realization, resistance measurement, and the residuals of the third-order polynomial fitting equation.
The flywheel energy storage systems using superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs) have been studied to contribute to daily load leveling. These SMBs are incorporated to support the total weight of rotors without contacting them. In designing these SMBs, the levitation force should be reasonably predicted. To predict this force, the practical analytical method should be developed. This paper deals with the analysis of levitation force characteristics for practicable radial-type SMBs with multiple superconducting bulks. It was found that the attenuation of the levitation force because of flux creep and hysteresis of a superconductor assembly were well explained. We show calculation results of the distribution of supercurrent density and axial magnetic force density according to flux creep and hysteresis of the superconductor in radial-type SMB. The ‘ideal bulk with a model of equivalent thickness’ would be effectively applied to the design of an actual SMB.