A robot-arm-based mobile HTS-SQUID nondestructive inspection (NDI) system was developed to inspect advanced structures such as hydrogen fuel-cell tanks. In order to realize the stable operation of a HTS-SQUID gradiometer, exposed in Earth’s magnetic field and noise from the robot arm, without flux-trapping, flux-jumping and unlocking during motion, a new active magnetic shielding (AMS) technique using fluxgate and a compensation coil were introduced. The highly sensitive fluxgate, which can measure a magnetic field of up to several tens of μT, was mounted near a HTS-SQUID gradiometer, cooled by a cryocooler on the robot arm. This was done to measure the ambient noise and feed back its output to a compensation coil, which surrounded both the SQUID and fluxgate, to cancel the ambient noise around them. The AMS technique successfully enabled the HTS-SQUID gradiometer to be moved by the robot arm at up to 100 mm/s in an unshielded environment without flux-trapping, jumping and unlocking. The detection of hidden slots in multi-layer composite-metal structures imitating the fuel tank was demonstrated.
A nondestructive inspection method to detect wire breakage in power transmission lines using an HTS SQUID gradiometer was examined. Hard-aluminum transmission lines composed of 19 twisted Al wires, with or without wire breakage, were prepared as specimens. While applying AC voltage to the specimens to induce the equivalent current in each wire, distributions of magnetic field gradient above the transmission lines were scanned by the gradiometer. A periodic pattern in the gradient distribution due to wire breakage was observed in the results of the line with wire breakage, while such pattern was not observed in that of the line without wire breakage. The effect of wire breakage in the transmission line appearing in field gradient generated by the line with current was also investigated by computer simulation, and the result was in approximate agreement with the experimental results.
The fundamental characteristics of the atomization behavior of micro-slush nitrogen (SN2) jet flow through a twofluid nozzle was numerically investigated and visualized by a new type of integrated simulation technique. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is focused on the production mechanism of micro-slush nitrogen particles in a two-fluid nozzle and on the consecutive atomizing spray flow characteristics of the micro-slush jet. Based on the numerically predicted nozzle atomization performance, a new type of superadiabatic two-fluid ejector nozzle is developed. This nozzle is capable of generating and atomizing micro-slush nitrogen by means of liquid-gas impingement of a pressurized subcooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) flow and a low-temperature, high-speed gaseous helium (GHe) flow. The application of micro-slush as a refrigerant for long-distance high-temperature superconducting cables (HTS) is anticipated, and its production technology is expected to result in an extensive improvement in the effective cooling performance of superconducting systems. Computation indicates that the cryogenic microslush atomization rate and the multiphase spraying flow characteristics are affected by rapid LN2-GHe mixing and turbulence perturbation upstream of the two-fluid nozzle, hydrodynamic instabilities at the gas-liquid interface, and shear stress between the liquid core and periphery of the LN2 jet. Calculation of the effect of micro-slush atomization on the jet thermal field revealed that high-speed mixing of LN2-GHe swirling flow extensively enhances the heat transfer between the LN2 phase and the GHe phase. Furthermore, the performance of the micro-slush production nozzle was experimentally investigated by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), and measurement results were compared with the numerical results. (Translation of the article originally published in Cryogenics 49 (2009) 39-50)
The heat transfer equation derived from the Stefan-Boltzmann law is frequently used to calculate the heat load due to thermal radiation in a cryogenic apparatus. This equation expresses heat transfer from one surface to the other, and includes no information on structures between these surfaces. In the case of thermal radiation through a metal pipe, which exists between different temperature regions, its reflection and conduction in the pipe (funneling) have to be considered. This effect is much larger than the simple estimation derived from the solid angle between these temperature regions. In this paper, the heat transfer equation derived from a ray-trace model and an experiment conducted to confirm it are described. Moreover, the reduction experiment of this heat load using metal baffles is also reported.