The saturation and non-saturation phenomena for pinning force density are described. Models for these phenomena are introduced and compared experimentally. It can be concluded that the non-saturation phenomenon observed in commercial Nb-Ti belongs to the pinning regime of higher pinning performance than the saturation phenomenon observed in Nb3Sn. Such classification is determined by the number density and elementary pinning force of the pinning centers. The peculiar behavior of flux lines in the saturation phenomenon can be clarified by a small AC ripple field measurement called Campbell's method. An avalanching flux flow model based on this experimental result explains the saturation and non-saturation properties well.
This paper describes a fundamental study on the generation characteristics of a high Tc superconducting induction/synchronous machine (HTS-ISM), with a structure the same as squirrel-cage induction machines. Bi-2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes are utilized for the fabrication of the secondary windings, and a commercialized 3-phase, 4-pole stator is introduced. The fabricated HTS-ISM is immersed in liquid nitrogen, and then operated at a frequency of 60 Hz. It is shown for the first time that our HTS machine can generate active power at synchronous speed when the primary windings are excited. This indicates that synchronous generation can be realized with the simple structure of HTS-ISM.