This study examines the properties of gestures that serve to convey an image of the speaker. The gesture observed can be perceived as a sub-type of gestures that linguistic anthropologist Charles Goodwin termed “environmentally coupled gestures” in that the meaning of the gesture is determined not by its semiotic property but by the mutual elaboration of the gesture and other semiotic resources such as artifacts, utterance, and gaze. A conversation analysis was conducted based on data collected during interaction among members of a project team constructing an installation for a science museum. The results show that team members recurrently re-do gestures that convey the image of the speaker along with another gesture constructed to be coupled with the original gesture.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the writing style and revision process of a contemporary fiction writer from a cognitive science perspective. We focus on the work of Mishima Prize winning author, Otaro Maijo. Using Type Trace, a text editor devised by Dividual Inc., as an analysis tool for observing the writing process, we con- sider features that have not been detected by creative experiment, protocol analysis or manuscript research. Based on observations of Maijo’s writing process, firstly revisions are categorized as additions, deletions, substitutions, distributions, or consolidations. Secondly, revisions are further classified as “revisions at a generative point”, “revisions in a generative sentence”, “revisions in a generative paragraph”, or “revisions beyond the generative paragraph”, according to the remoteness of the revision from the point of composition. The results reveal that revisions such as the substitution of words and adjustments in sentence length were mostly performed together with text generation. All revisions that were made after an interlude took the form of revisions far removed from sentence generation. We find that Maijo’s writing style tends to be maintained for several weeks to months and then changes substantially.
Research on sentence production often assumes that there is a universal mechanism for the sentence production. Nevertheless, languages investigated so far are typolog- ically quite limited. The aim of this paper is to investigate how VOS sentences are produced in Kaqchikel, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala, examining animacy effects on the choice of word order. We conducted two picture description tasks manip- ulating animacy of the patient entity in the event while the agent was always human being. Throughout those experiments, less VOS sentences were produced with an an- imate patient than with an inanimate patient, suggesting that the similarity between agent and patient, rather than the accessibility of the patient per se, affects the choice of word order in Kaqchikel. Based on these results, we argue that VOS sentences are produced in a way that an agent is processed first and retained in the memory until the end of the sentence.
We aim to create gradual readability (or target age) measures from infants to elder children. For Japanese texts, several readability measures have been proposed, none of which is applied to texts for infants. Therefore, in this paper, we employ 123 pic- ture books which are clearly decided fine-grained target ages as criterial corpus. Then we investigate the applicability of two previous works to these picture books. Both works show modelate performance. Then we propose a method using new learner and features, and we achieved higher performance to guess the target age.
The research aimed to evaluate how reliably major Parts-of-Speech (PoS) (i.e., Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb) can be predicted from surface word forms —more concretely, ending character n-grams (n= 2, 3, 4) of surface word forms— of English and Czech, to compare the results from the two languages. It was conducted with two objectives. First, it wanted to establish the hypothesis that the degrees to which PoS is reliably predicated from surface word forms can vary drastically among languages, though effec- tive measurement of the predictability is unimplemented yet. (If a language has a high degree of predictability of PoS from surface word forms, we can say is has a high form- function transparency in PoS recognition.) Second, it wanted to show that English is a language whose vocabulary is relatively hard to acquire, as far as a good predictabil- ity of POS from word forms facilitates vocabulary acquisition, which is admittedly an unconfirmed hypothesis, with other things being equal. Results of Formal Concept Analysis (Ganter and Wille 1999) applied to the English and Czech data suggest that ending character n-gram of English words had noticeably less predictability than ones of Czech words in terms of major PoS, i.e., N, V, Adj and Adv, because they are highly confusing in English. This means that vocabulary acqui- sition can be significantly harder in English than in Czech, if other things being equal. The results also suggest that English was one of those languages in which effective PoS recognition requires multi-word processing strategy.
The aim of this study was to review the roles of visual cues in communication between performers and audience members during a music performance. Although numerous studies have elucidated that visual cues convey such elements as performance manners, emotional expressions, musical structure, or sound expressions, little has been done to provide a holistic perspective of these findings. Thus, we scrutinized how visual cues af- fect the encoding of performers’ intentions or the decoding of a performance by audience members. With respect to each cue, the existing literature has revealed that body move- ment directs the manner of performance, emotional expression, and musical structures toward the audience members. Specific parts of the body, particularly, demonstrate this tendency. Facial expressions serve to convey emotional expressions and features of sound. Gaze is regarded as an important cue for communication, although its role remains unclear. Physical attractiveness and attire also influence performance evalua- tions. Overall, visual cues dominate over auditory cues and have a powerful impact on performer-audience interaction in many studies. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of music performance and music appreciation in concert or under mul- timodal conditions.
A motion picture is comprised of multiple shots, and filmmakers have developed techniques for projecting smooth and continuous transitions of shots. One of these techniques is known as a matching-action cut in which a cut occurs in the middle of an event and successive shots are spliced. The present study consists of an experi- mental survey that assesses editing methods for making a seamless match-action cut. Participants viewed short movie clips of various events, with varying camera angles, with different timing of cuts, and with time-sequence manipulation of shot transition (straight-match, ellipsis, overlapping). Movie clips were presented in pairs and partici- pants determined which of each pair set of clips appeared continuous. Based on those decisions, psychological scaling was conducted taking effect of time-sequence manipula- tion into consideration. However, from the analysis, a general preference for a specific manipulation was not confirmed.
Speech perception in prelexical processing is reviewed mainly due to the research of the author of this paper to show a view of speech perception. Phonemic features are distributed in time course by co-articulation in speech pro- duction. The distributed features are perceptually integrated to perceive the phoneme according to the intensity of the feature. The basic perceptual unit of speech is larger than phoneme unit. It is determined due to the timing (rhythmic) system of the lis- tener’s native language e.g. syllable (French), mora (Japanese), unit determined due to stress (English). These results indicate that the perceptual integration of phonemic feature is organized to perceive a basic perceptual unit. Then cross-linguistic experiments among French, Dutch and Japanese show that a listener of each language perceive the unit not to violate the phonotactic constraints of his/her native language. The results show that it is important to take into account language rhythmic system to learn the language as the second one. Finally, it is proposed that the study of speech perception could contribute to that of language acquisition and second language learning and vice versa.
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