This paper addresses the issue of design drawing in order to discuss about creativity. Purpose of designers' drawing is to generate enormous Fields of Creative Perception for themselves. Why does a design teacher requires his/her students to draw hundred sketches in one night at home work? What is achievement of the students through the hard work? The answer is that the hundred drawings become fields of their diverse inventions on the process. Design creativity is emerged out of number of expressions derived from coupling of perception/seeing and action/drawing. Beautiful original forms are only extracted from a large number of ideas and scrubbed of the extractions. Therefore ability of generating Fields of Creative Perception should be fostered on design students in their learning. Creativity is abilities of drawing enormous sketches and organizing them into creative fields as professional designers do. Discussion of this paper consists of reading perceptual experience of Rudolf Arnheim, coupling of perception and action, Fields of Creative Perception and expression then creativity and self.
The coupling of perception and action means that action depends on perception and, at the same time, facilitates perception. This paper deals with the mechanism of creators' coupling of perception and action during creation process. Three topics are picked up: (a) Creators' action should be motivated by the theme of a system with the aim of perceiving beauty, such as a design idea; (b) in order to the theme optimally, creators should keep on self-generating the valuation standard for beauty; (c) self-generating of the valuation standard emerges from a simultaneous solving process of forward-inverse problem, which is analogous to feedback-error-learning process directed by tentative design.
In the aim that asks for the origin-state of designing, consciousness and creativity are considered in everyday life. The writer who is a designer shows the relation between creativity and consciousness through work of an actual design process and a fine-arts work. And the creative act in communication or interaction of the work and spectators and the relation between the way of thinking and its act in designing process are the centers of the writer's interest. It is also an important portion that it is shown how words, sketches and drawings in the process of the way of thinking are generated, and are utilized in real design and expression process. The creativity for living in real world is explored and it is connected with giving a definition of a new design. To focusing on encountering the phenomena, it gives us alternative views of the perception of everyday life and creative work.
Arnheim (1977) claimed that the appearance of created things, for example, architecture and the work of art, has visual forces to let appreciators construct experiences of their own. What kind of cognitive processes of a creator enable appreciators to “experience” the created thing? The present paper proposes an answer to this question. This question has been treated as a kind of mystery so far, since the act of creation is not a transfer of what a creator wants to express from a creator to appreciators. The appreciators construct experiences of their own by being mediated by the created thing. We propose the following idea. The act of creation is a cognitive coupling of dynamic perception, actions of external representation and the construction of self, through which what a creator wants to express develops dynamically. What a creator should aim at is to focus on the practice of his or her own cognitive coupling and thereby keep augmenting subjective experiences. A creator's subjective experiences through cognitive coupling will leave in the created thing some seeds which encourage appreciators to construct experiences of their own. Our case study of a methodology of writing sentences supports this idea. Further, we propose an idea that a meta-cognitive practice of describing one's own cognitive coupling will improve the ability of dynamic perception and productive idea-generation, and hence enable persistence of the cognitive coupling. Our case study of a meta-cognitive practice of describing one's own act of singing a song supports the second idea. The ideas and findings in the present paper have pedagogical implications for all involved in the scene of creation.
Designing a house or a building, spaces which consists of actions and behavior of its residents and users, is, in other words, a visualization of such behavior and habits along with functions as a building, together in accordance with requests from the clients. This paper is an attempt on stating how an architect brings such components as users' behaviors into a spatial figure. The indispensable factor in the course of designing a house is a thorough communication with the client, not only to reach further understanding of each other's beliefs, but during which to bring out the clients' views on a residence, since such views become the essential clues upon designing. To spatialize human behavior in terms of architectural design is to extract as much clues for the actions the clients would take as possible, reduce the clues to elements that would assist the clients when at the residence, and lay the elements in the space in the most simplest form; the careful communication with the clients at the early stage would lead to their awareness on the wide potential of the space when come into use. Inspired by reading The Dynamics of Architectural Form by R. Arnheim, especially chapters 1 and 8, which led me to reflect on my career as an architect, I intend this paper to be a case study on achieving a methodology on architectural design by introducing an example of a measure to visualize users' behaviors in the course of the design, while citing my own attitude and experience in designing a residence in Koshigaya, Saitama with my partner, Kota Mizuishi.
According to Arnheim (1977), the perception of artworks means our total experience in our interaction with them. From this point of view, people can interact with artworks in various ways such as looking, copying, and reading reviews on the artworks. Different ways of interaction with artworks provide different kind of perceptual experiences. In this paper, we focused on the copying of artists' works and proposed the hypothesis that copying encourages the copiers' creativity as well as their acquiring knowledge of the artworks. We presumed that copying has the following two aspects: (1) understanding others and (2) understanding oneself. In the former aspect, the knowledge about the artistic products (to be copied) would be deepened by means of inferring the art making processes. In the latter aspect, the copiers' own taste for expression may become clarified by means of comparisons with others' artworks. Thus, the latter aspect is particularly important for creativity, because it might facilitate the copier's ability to produce her/his own original artworks. Our recent experiment (Ishibashi & Okada, 2003) revealed that copying facilitated students' creativity for drawing. Some of the verbal protocols in the copying session of the experiment indicate that the students participated in these two aspects of copying processes.
The present study examined facial expressions of actors and laypersons in three conditions. In the first condition, five taste stimuli (sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and astringent) were actually presented to 10 male actors and 10 male laypersons. In the second condition, they made facial expressions to pretend to feel each of five tastes (sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and astringent) without taste stimuli. In the third condition, they made facial expressions to pretend to feel delicious and unsavory without any taste stimuli. Their facial expressions in each condition were videotaped. Untrained undergraduate and graduate students were asked to identify or rate the facial expressions. Both actors and laypersons were not acting in the first condition, so there was no judged difference between them. In the second condition, when another group of judges viewed the facial expressions and tried to identify the taste, there was little difference between actors and laypersons. But, when the judges evaluated how strongly the facial expressions showed the taste, it was found that actors expressed tastes more strongly than laypersons. In the third condition, apparent difference was found. When they pretended to feel delicious, actors looked feeling more delicious than laypersons, and when pretended to feel unsavory, actors looked feeling worse than laypersons. We divided the processes of acting into planning of performances and actual performing. The relationship between the results in this study and planning of performances was discussed. The differences between five tastes were also analyzed.