Current explanations for the mirror reversal problem assume in common left and right symmetry and⁄or the three dimensional rotation about a vertical axis as the necessary condition. However, it is possible to prove that such theories include logical contradiction because of confusing understanding of the meaning of reversal on images of various objects placed in front of the plane mirror. To obtain right answer, first of all, we should have correct understanding about what is the true meaning of the mirror reversal problem itself, and also should understand different cognitive methods of the reversal of direction. A new reliable solution of the problem independent of these two assumptions (symmetry and rotation) is proposed using a new definition of our right and left based on the clockwise or counterclockwise rotation. In addition, by a “vision coordinate system” or “head axes” which can be physically defined, the logic explaining the mirror reversal becomes simpler and broadly available for sophisticated cases of human mirror images
We propose a method to represent the narrative and cognitive structures of a type of story that incorporate variations in its different versions without using abstractions such as narrative grammars. The method is based on motifs and a network model, the nodes of which are motifs, to represent the story progression. We modeled variations of Cinderella tales using our method to demonstrate its efficacy, and defined meta-knowledge about folktales that captures the progression of narratives and allows reconstruction of narrative and cognitive structures based on the network model. We claim that our research provides an effective approach to model narrative structures that makes it possible to generate new variations from the model.
In this study, we aim to demonstrate the effect of obtaining perspectives for problem solving. We consider obtaining a specific perspective as an activity identifying oneself with a role in a target situation. Such an activity can be understood based on the framework for analogy research. According to the framework for analogy research, the probability of generating novel elements will increase in the fields where oneself is connected. In order to examine this hypothesis, we conducted Experiment 1, in which subjects were presented with a situation where a student mistook a mathematical problem, and the subjects' perspectives were manipulated to become problem solver or tutor. However, in the result of Experiment 1, no effect was detected, perhaps because the subjects' experiences might have interfered with the activity of obtaining a perspective. Then we conducted Experiment 2, in which subjects who had different experiences from Experiment 1 participated. In the result of Experiment 2, we detected differences in generating novel elements between the experimental conditions. These results implied (1) the difference of perspectives leads to changes in the fields in which novel elements are generated, and (2) past experiences interfere with obtaining counter-perspectives.
Arithmetic tie effect is a phenomenon that tie problems (e.g. 3+3 or 6×6) are solved faster than non-tie problems (e.g. 3+4 or 6×7). The purpose of this study was to compare the predictions of three hypotheses on the tie effect: learning frequency, encoding advantage, and two-factor model. The utilization of the true-false evaluation, from which the participants (n=22) were required to ascertain whether an equation (e.g. 3+4=7) was true, revealed that the tie effect was larger in addition than in multiplication. This result supported the two-factor model and led to further discussion on the process of arithmetic verification.