An overall goal, in healthcare, is the identification and prevention of errors. This goal requires a mechanism for the codification and organization of the published literature related to healthcare errors. While there are a number of limited taxonomies to classify healthcare or medical errors, no single system has widespread acceptance. The goal of this project has been to develop an ontology which could be used for the codification of healthcare⁄medical errors which could act as an organizing structure for those researching this field and to create a standard mechanism to codify errors as a first step in healthcare/medical error prevention and the improvement of patient safety. This paper describes our efforts in developing a comprehensive medical error ontology to serve as a standard representation for medical error concepts gleaned from various existing published taxonomies, and to the ultimate goal of improving patient safety. Eight candidate taxonomies were selected from published literature and merged to create a reference ontology consisting of 12 multi-dimensional axes that encompass all the aspects of a medical error event. Subsequent steps include mapping the reference ontology to the original taxonomies and building a knowledge base of medical error cases. This approach builds on the work which has already been accomplished, but extends it into new domains.
In order to discuss the properties of human judgment and decision making in the risk society, a decision theoretic framework for evaluating uncertainties of several societal risks was introduced. There are controversies on the theoretical discussions about uncertainties related to the societal risks among scientists, sociologists, and also, possibly, the populace. Therefore, we introduced a taxonomy of the uncertainties from the standpoint of the environmental structure of decision makers, and examine the social risk problems as decision making problems uncertainties using it. Secondly, we also introduced prospect theory as a nonlinear expected utility theory in order to examine human judgment and decision making and normative societal decision theory. We proposed to apply prospect theory as a non-linear expected utility theory for the evaluation of risks especially for natural disasters, nuclear power plants, and other new technologies. Lastly, we introduced the properties of human social behavior and trust formation in the modern uncertain world, and then discussed practical implications of our framework for risk evaluation as a process of social technology for social safety and security.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of critical thinking (objectiveness, evidence based judgment, inquiry-mind, and awareness for logical thinking), the number of mass media they accessed (newspaper, newscast, and infotainment), risk perception, seeking for information, demands of risk management to governments and companies, and other cognitive factors (e.g., perceived cost, risk controllability) on behaviors to avoid risks of endocrine disruptors. Participants (N=1420) completed a questionnaire booklet that had the 10 scales. The data was divided into four groups (under 40 male, over 40 male, under 40 female, and over 40 female) and analyzed with structure equation modeling. Results showed that females or over 40 age people were more sensitive about risk and tended to avoid risk. For decision-making processes, all groups had the two tendencies as follows: (a) evidence based judgment affected on risk-avoidance behavior mediated by mass media accessed and perceived benefit, (b) inquiry-mind affected on risk-avoidance behavior mediated by seeking for information and demands of risk management. Male groups had the two processes that (c) inquiry-mind affected on risk-avoidance behavior mediated by risk controllability, awareness for endocrine disruptors, and risk perception, (d) the number of mass media they accessed affected on risk avoidance behavior mediated by awareness for endocrine disruptors and demands of risk management to governments. Female groups had the process that (e) objectiveness and evidence based judgment affected on risk-avoidance behavior mediated by mass media accessed, perceived cost, and risk perception. Mass media accessed affected on various cognitive factors.
Researchers, who are interested in motor vehicle accident prevention, want their laboratory research outcomes to be utilized in actual prevention measures. However, they sometimes have difficulties in conducting their laboratory research. They are often in trouble when they understand accident statistics. Also, they are often in trouble when the public and program planners did not understand possibilities of the research outcomes, or misunderstand the research results. In this study, several events, which had been occurred in motor vehicle accident prevention and researches in Japan, were analyzed from the viewpoint of techno-science studies and situated cognition theory. Revision of accident statistics, counter measures for older drivers accidents and counter measures of drinking driving were analyzed. Results of this study indicates that observation devices, such as statistic survey sheets or driving simulator are important, not only for reliable measurement but also for cooperation with the publics and program planners. The results also suggest that when researchers design their research method, they should have multi dimensional and macro view in which researchers are able to see not only the qualities of research method, but also social cooperation with program planners.
This study reports the characteristics of communication between a nurse and surrounding persons, especially patients and other nurses, in medical wards. The 21 nurses were equipped with IC recorders during time studies of nursing workloads, and all of their conversations were recorded and transcribed. Discourse analyses focused on dialogue for sharing risk information in medical treatments. Several cases showed that ambiguous or inadequate utterances frequently emerged in dialogue among nurses, which showed some potentiality of serious errors in medical care or communication. In other hands, some cases showed effective risk sharing, with open questions which facilitated mutual risk cognition and constructed a new context of dialogue for risk management. These results suggests that risk sharing communication, as problem solving based on collaborative cognition, could be one key concept for medical safety.
The purpose of this study was to test whether the probability of confusion errors is related to the similarity indices calculated by the formulas: “cos1”, “htco”, and “edit” (Tsuchiya et al., 2001). A pair of drugs was displayed right after a brief exposure of either one of the drugs and two numerals on the computer screen. The subject's task was first to answer the sum of the figures and then to identify which drug was displayed. Students and pharmacists participated in the experiments. The results showed that the rate of confusion errors increased as a function of the degree of similarity except for index “edit”. It was also demonstrated that the error rate was affected by the number of shared characters in the beginning and the ending of drug names. Further analysis of the results suggested the necessity of examining the effect of the coincidence of special features in a character and the effect of the similarity of the form of a character.
We propose a logistic regression model that represents the process of generating subjective probabilities for combined conditionals, including concrete contents. We assume the generation process to consist of two components. The first is the calculation of subjective probabilities for two simple conditionals that have the same consequent (i.e., A → C, B → C), which constitute a combined conditional (i.e., A ∧ B → C). The second component is the semantic interaction between the two antecedents and the consequent. In the proposed model, the subjective probability for a combined conditional is calculated based on the logistic function for the linear combination of the latent strengths for the two simple conditionals involved in the combined conditional. The coefficients of the linear combination represent the semantic interaction between the two antecedents and the consequent. The latent strengths and the coefficients in the model are estimated from subjectively rated probabilities. These estimated parameters are used to classify the combined conditionals according to two types of semantic interaction, which are discussed in terms of the actual semantic content of each combined conditional.