On September 5th, 2006, Japanese physicist-psychologist-philosopher Masanao Toda died in Nagoya at the age of 82. Decision researchers and others will remember him as a witty, sharp and independent thinker, whose interests and expertise ranged from theoretical physics and mathematics to cognitive psychology (rather: cognitive science) and social philosophy. Toda's research contributions were focused on subjective probability, dynamic decision-making, the decision-making role of emotions, and a grand theory of social interaction. Within the European research conference on Subjective Probability, Utility and Decision Making (biennial ‘SPUDM’) his work on subjective probability was already mentioned at the very first meeting in Hamburg (see Wendt, 1969; Vlek, 1999). He himself participated in SPUDM conferences in Darmstadt (1975), Warszawa (1977), Göteborg (1979) and Groningen (1983). The later part of his career was largely devoted to his “Urge theory of emotions” which still awaits official publication in English. Toda's decease cannot go without recalling his international orientation, his main ideas about human cognition and decision-making and the way he exposed them.
We investigated how automatic⁄controlled process affect output monitoring under the condition where action phrases are well learned previously and dual task is performed. In fixed sequence condition, the order of action phrases was same during input session, while in random sequence condition, the order of action phrases was different. It was revealed that the fixed sequence condition enables participants to remember action phrases more easily and faster than the random condition. However, the fixed sequence condition makes the response to &ldqup;I'm not sure” more than random sequence condition in output monitoring session. We concluded that action phrases were remembered automatically as a series of actions in the fixed sequence condition and load of cognition decreased. However decreasing load of cognition made output monitoring difficult. We further discussed the output monitoring error in the relation to human error in everyday life.