認知科学
Online ISSN : 1881-5995
Print ISSN : 1341-7924
ISSN-L : 1341-7924
14 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の14件中1~14を表示しています
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特集 -社会は認知科学に何を求めるか
  • 石井 加代子, 小橋 康章
    2007 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 6-10
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 石井 加代子
    2007 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 11-30
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    As neuroscience has advanced, it increased expectation that unknown aspects of the mind could be explored by it. But it has its limit as analytical science and lacks models of cognitive processes as such that cognitive sciences has been exploring. Cognitive sciences have been pondering robots to clarify cognition of human beings as both of them have physical systems to interact with environments. Recently robotics researchers are actually trying to realize such robot with human-like cognitive system that can be a effective platform on which researchers from divers disciplines collaborate. As a longstanding multidisciplinary area of science, cognitive science can be contribute to create, through such collaboration, comprehensive understanding of human mind and its useful application to social system in the 21st century.
  • 中島 秀之, 橋田 浩一, 松尾 豊
    2007 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 31-38
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    Information technology (IT) is now mature enough to be applied to our societal systems. Altough IT has potential to change our life in a drastic manner, it is not recognized by many. Researchers on IT on the other hand have little interest in designing new societal systems. Even when they do, they lack knowledge of the real world and human. Collaboration with cognitive science as well as social science is called for.
  • 中馬 宏之
    2007 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 39-59
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    The competitiveness of Japan's semiconductor industry fell sharply in the latter half of the 1990s. This paper attempts to explore structural factors behind this by focusing particularly on production systems. In doing so, special attention is paid to the rapid increase in complexity of technologies and markets, a phenomenon brought about by the “self-propagating” evolution of information technologies of the semiconductor industry's own making. Such an increase in complexity calls for highly specialized knowledge⁄know-how. At the same time, it is necessary to create a mechanism for combining such knowledge⁄know-how so as to ensure its cumulative and agile generation in an integral form. Japan's semiconductor industry, however, has yet to create such a mechanism for its production system. This paper attempts to identify factors behind this and find clues toward solving the problem.
  • -- 政策実践との往還の中で --
    田柳 恵美子
    2007 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 60-73
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    Last a few decades a new trend of “cognitive approach”, which focuses on human and human group's cognitive behavior and dynamics of their interaction, has been emerging in social sciences, especially in organization and innovation studies. This study try to review how new theoretical fields, such as economics of information, economics of organization, new institutional theory of economics, organizational knowledge creation theory, knowledge transfer theory and cognitive coordination theory, has evolved. Based on the review, we abstract problems of such cognitive approaches and discuss possibilities of cognitive sciences' contribution to the problems.
  • -- エージェントモデリング及びオントロジーを用いて --
    野田 浩平, Klaus Voss, 久津 豪
    2007 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 74-89
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article investigates the possibility of applying cognitive-science research outcomes for commercial purposes in a business-academia collaboration project supported by the industrialization office of the authors' university. The authors' research backgrounds are computational cognitive science and its applications; particularly in concerning ontology, cognitive and agent modeling. They hypothesize that their research outcomes can provide practical solutions to knowledge sharing and knowledge visualization problems. They investigate corporate human-resource management as an example, develop business process modeling framework using social agent simulator and also develop a human resource evaluation ontology. Applying them to simple recruitment interview cases, the authors analyze the applicability of the proposed solution. In conclusion, they discuss practical problems to be solved for their solution to spread.
研究論文
  • 阿部 慶賀, 中川 正宣
    2007 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 91-117
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this research is to examine whether the results of statistical analyses on the basis of a language corpus correspond with human beings' language knowledge or not. In order to examine the correspondence, a psychological experiment was conducted using results of statistical analysis of a language corpus as follows: Two participants groups were asked to answer words or metaphors given referring materials chosen from the results of statistical analysis of language corpus. In the association group, 18 participants were asked to associate words from materials.In the metaphor generation group, 20 participants were asked to generate “A like B” style metaphors.The result of the psychological experiment showed the correspondence of the results of statistical analysis of a language corpus with human beings' language knowledge.Furthermore, answers of association group were compared with metaphors of metaphor generation group using relative entropy, which indicates a diversity of connections between words and latent semantic classes.The result showed that metaphors generated by the metaphor generation group were connected with more latent semantic classes than words answered by the association group
  • 不適合理論における2つのモデルの統合へ向けて
    伊藤 大幸
    2007 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 118-132
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model that integrates the incongruity model and the incongruity-resolution model, both of which explain cognitive aspects of the humor process. In the former, the direct cause of humor is incongruity, that is, discrepancy between expectations and actual states, whereas in the latter, it is a resolution of incongruity. In other words, it is a problem solving activity to find a cognitive rule that removes incongruity. The author hypothesized that the direct cause of humor is not resolution but incongruity, and the process of resolution interrupts conscious experience of humor by occupying one's attention. In Experiment 1, subjects read four-frame comic strips while remembering six-digit, three-digit or no numbers. The results showed that the humor rating was lower in the six-figure condition, although no difference was detected in humor comprehension. This suggested that (a) immersion in cognitive activity interrupts the humor experience. In Experiment 2, four-frame comic strips were presented while parts were hidden that either had no relation to humor or included essential cue for resolution. Then the parts were presented after a 5 or 15 second delay. Participants were asked to predict what was hidden during the delay. The results showed that delay decreased humor rating not only in the former condition but also in the latter condition. The effect of delay in the former condition implied (b) temporariness of humor, which was evoked when the stimuli were presented, while in the latter condition it implied that (c) humor as an emotional state could be evoked without resolution. Though the results of the two experiments supported the hypotheses of the author's model, these hypotheses were not sufficiently verified due to methodological problems.
  • 松田 憲, 平岡 斉士, 杉森 絵里子, 楠見 孝
    2007 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 133-154
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    We examined effects of repeated exposure of banner advertisement on measure of product's image such as knowledge of, liking for, and purchase intention for products. In Experiment 1, 24 participants were repeatedly presented banners of various trade names with different typicality. Then they were required to judge the trade names with respect to the level of typicality, liking, purchase intention, and recognition using 9-point scale. As results, higher typicality of trade names led to higher levels of recognition, liking, and purchase intention, including false recognitions. Those levels were not, however, likely to increase by repeated exposure. In Experiment 2, repetition frequency of exposure was increased and 79 participants were divided into three segments based on their present interests. The results showed that presenting banners with lower typicality particularly raised liking and purchase intention levels. We discuss the cognitive process that link typicality of trade name to liking and purchase intention.
文献紹介
  • 川合 伸幸
    2007 年 14 巻 1 号 p. 155-160
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    「ミラーニューロン」の発見から10年が経過した.その間,「模倣」の重要性の再認識とともに,心理学の諸領域(発達,比較認知)や神経科学のみならず,工学(ロボティックス,人工知能),言語学などにも大きな影響を与え,「ミラーニューロン」という言葉が一人歩きしている感さえある.「ミラーニューロン」が模倣に関連していることは広く知られているが,実はかならずしも正確に理解されていないように思われる.たとえば,ミラーニューロンはサルで見つかったが,サルは決して模倣をしない.チンパンジーの模倣でさえ非常に限定的である.サルのミラーニューロンは,模倣にどのように関わり,何をしているのだろうか? そこで,ミラーニューロンを発見した著者の1人がそれ以降の研究をまとめ展望を述べた論文を紹介し,ミラーシステムとはどのようなものであるのかを確認する.結論をいえば,ミラーシステムは模倣に関わっているが,その一義的な働きは,他者の「行為を理解」することである.著者らは,模倣はコミュニケーションや学習メカニズムの一部としてのみ必要とされると考えている.ここでは読みやすくするために,図を補いオリジナルの論文とは多少異なる説の分け方をした.2番目の論文は,サルはこれまでのレパートリーにない新たな行動が要求されるいわゆる運動模倣をしないが,認知的なルールをコピーする認知模倣は可能であることを示している.模倣には,「行為レベルの模倣」と「プログラムレベルの模倣」があり,この論文では,サルはプログラムレベルの模倣が可能であることを示している.3番目の論文は,行為が行われた状況ではそれらのどちらのレベルの模倣が合理的であるか,という推論を14ヶ月齢の赤ちゃんが行うことを示している.つまり,大人のモデルが行った目的指向的な行動が,その目的を達成するための合理性があるかを推論し,そう判断される場合には同じやり方の行為で模倣するが,そうでなければ(すでに行動レパートリーになっている)より簡単なやり方の模倣で目的を達成することを示している.これらの論文を,図などを補足しつつ簡単に紹介したい.
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