認知科学
Online ISSN : 1881-5995
Print ISSN : 1341-7924
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14 巻 , 1 号
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特集 -社会は認知科学に何を求めるか
研究論文
  • 阿部 慶賀, 中川 正宣
    14 巻 (2007) 1 号 p. 91-117
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this research is to examine whether the results of statistical analyses on the basis of a language corpus correspond with human beings' language knowledge or not. In order to examine the correspondence, a psychological experiment was conducted using results of statistical analysis of a language corpus as follows: Two participants groups were asked to answer words or metaphors given referring materials chosen from the results of statistical analysis of language corpus. In the association group, 18 participants were asked to associate words from materials.In the metaphor generation group, 20 participants were asked to generate “A like B” style metaphors.The result of the psychological experiment showed the correspondence of the results of statistical analysis of a language corpus with human beings' language knowledge.Furthermore, answers of association group were compared with metaphors of metaphor generation group using relative entropy, which indicates a diversity of connections between words and latent semantic classes.The result showed that metaphors generated by the metaphor generation group were connected with more latent semantic classes than words answered by the association group
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  • 伊藤 大幸
    14 巻 (2007) 1 号 p. 118-132
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model that integrates the incongruity model and the incongruity-resolution model, both of which explain cognitive aspects of the humor process. In the former, the direct cause of humor is incongruity, that is, discrepancy between expectations and actual states, whereas in the latter, it is a resolution of incongruity. In other words, it is a problem solving activity to find a cognitive rule that removes incongruity. The author hypothesized that the direct cause of humor is not resolution but incongruity, and the process of resolution interrupts conscious experience of humor by occupying one's attention. In Experiment 1, subjects read four-frame comic strips while remembering six-digit, three-digit or no numbers. The results showed that the humor rating was lower in the six-figure condition, although no difference was detected in humor comprehension. This suggested that (a) immersion in cognitive activity interrupts the humor experience. In Experiment 2, four-frame comic strips were presented while parts were hidden that either had no relation to humor or included essential cue for resolution. Then the parts were presented after a 5 or 15 second delay. Participants were asked to predict what was hidden during the delay. The results showed that delay decreased humor rating not only in the former condition but also in the latter condition. The effect of delay in the former condition implied (b) temporariness of humor, which was evoked when the stimuli were presented, while in the latter condition it implied that (c) humor as an emotional state could be evoked without resolution. Though the results of the two experiments supported the hypotheses of the author's model, these hypotheses were not sufficiently verified due to methodological problems.
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  • 松田 憲, 平岡 斉士, 杉森 絵里子, 楠見 孝
    14 巻 (2007) 1 号 p. 133-154
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    We examined effects of repeated exposure of banner advertisement on measure of product's image such as knowledge of, liking for, and purchase intention for products. In Experiment 1, 24 participants were repeatedly presented banners of various trade names with different typicality. Then they were required to judge the trade names with respect to the level of typicality, liking, purchase intention, and recognition using 9-point scale. As results, higher typicality of trade names led to higher levels of recognition, liking, and purchase intention, including false recognitions. Those levels were not, however, likely to increase by repeated exposure. In Experiment 2, repetition frequency of exposure was increased and 79 participants were divided into three segments based on their present interests. The results showed that presenting banners with lower typicality particularly raised liking and purchase intention levels. We discuss the cognitive process that link typicality of trade name to liking and purchase intention.
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  • 川合 伸幸
    14 巻 (2007) 1 号 p. 155-160
    公開日: 2008/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    「ミラーニューロン」の発見から10年が経過した.その間,「模倣」の重要性の再認識とともに,心理学の諸領域(発達,比較認知)や神経科学のみならず,工学(ロボティックス,人工知能),言語学などにも大きな影響を与え,「ミラーニューロン」という言葉が一人歩きしている感さえある.「ミラーニューロン」が模倣に関連していることは広く知られているが,実はかならずしも正確に理解されていないように思われる.たとえば,ミラーニューロンはサルで見つかったが,サルは決して模倣をしない.チンパンジーの模倣でさえ非常に限定的である.サルのミラーニューロンは,模倣にどのように関わり,何をしているのだろうか? そこで,ミラーニューロンを発見した著者の1人がそれ以降の研究をまとめ展望を述べた論文を紹介し,ミラーシステムとはどのようなものであるのかを確認する.結論をいえば,ミラーシステムは模倣に関わっているが,その一義的な働きは,他者の「行為を理解」することである.著者らは,模倣はコミュニケーションや学習メカニズムの一部としてのみ必要とされると考えている.ここでは読みやすくするために,図を補いオリジナルの論文とは多少異なる説の分け方をした.2番目の論文は,サルはこれまでのレパートリーにない新たな行動が要求されるいわゆる運動模倣をしないが,認知的なルールをコピーする認知模倣は可能であることを示している.模倣には,「行為レベルの模倣」と「プログラムレベルの模倣」があり,この論文では,サルはプログラムレベルの模倣が可能であることを示している.3番目の論文は,行為が行われた状況ではそれらのどちらのレベルの模倣が合理的であるか,という推論を14ヶ月齢の赤ちゃんが行うことを示している.つまり,大人のモデルが行った目的指向的な行動が,その目的を達成するための合理性があるかを推論し,そう判断される場合には同じやり方の行為で模倣するが,そうでなければ(すでに行動レパートリーになっている)より簡単なやり方の模倣で目的を達成することを示している.これらの論文を,図などを補足しつつ簡単に紹介したい.
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