The present study illustrates a role that the bodily gesture plays in the production of musical artistry. I especially focused on its expressive (i.e. rhetorical) function, which enables musicians to effectively realize and communicate their musical interpretations. From interviews with musicians ranging in level from student to professional, and from observations of conductor′s gestures videotaped in orchestra rehearsals, I report three cases showing how essential the sense of bodily movement contributes to finding the appropriate expression of music. In case 1, an interview with a pianist⁄conductor, Ryusuke Numajiri, I demonstrate examples of gesture embedded in music composition that constrains hand shape in the context of piano playing. According to Numajiri, such a habit very likely reflects each composer′s motor capacity or preference of finger patterning, which makes a pianist′s hands and fingers form “composer-specific” motion patterns. In case 2, through observations of videotaped data on expressive gestures shown by two conductors, Myong-Whun Chung and Tetsuro Ban, I compare features of their gestures when they conduct the same piece. Results showed that, at the same point of the piece, both conductors represented nuances of the sound with very similar gestures, suggesting that the character of the musical sound has an intrinsic tendency to arouse a specific (similar) type of bodily gesture. In case 3, I introduce examples of bodily movements executed by a conductor, Uriel Segal, which produced an intended musical atmosphere. My main finding was that he clearly demonstrated that conductor′s gestures, including beating motions all embody musical requirements that lead the orchestra in the proper direction. Further, I observed that his conducting also displayed a sense of being still, “how to stop moving the body” at some points in the music as well as a sense of being in motion at other times. Discussion of all the findings suggests that there is an intrinsic link between musical expression and bodily sense, which I believe offers insight into the origins of music and experience of musical artistry.
Illustrative researches suggest that a coordinated relational system between a performer and audience affects on humor elicitation process in vaudeville settings. The present study investigated how the system was formed and developed along with a flow of a story. 7 participants including 4 targets sat down face to face with a performer and watched Rakugo (a Japanese traditional performing art) performance. With using coordination of motion as a quantitative indicator, not only duration of coordination between a performer and each target but also its phase difference were examined. The results demonstrated that the humor scores measured by facial expression were higher for audience who were more strongly coordinated with the performer, compared to audience weakly coordinated. For the highest humor scored audience, in contrast to the lowest scored audience, larger coordinated areas emerged and audience-preceding coordination were established at early stage of the story. Even the lowest humor scored audience, the humor score increased in latter part of the story, following the audience-preceding coordination rising. These results suggest that it is important for humor elicitation to occur audience-preceding coordination based on a performer-audience system, where audience actively anticipate next story line, while a performer acts reflecting audience′s response to construct vaudeville settings each other.
Drama is considered to be an emerged spatio-temporal pattern of actors′ actions in front of audiences. From the viewpoint of system dynamics, there are two types of agents in the creative process of making a drama. One is a cluster of actors and the other is a stage director. The actors prepare for their roles. The stage director, on the other hand, gives them various instructions to direct the whole flow of their actions. In other words, making a drama is regarded as a dynamic process to form spatio-temporal patterns of actors′ behaviors and conversations that fits a given purpose, and it is controlled by the stage director making constraint conditions to the heterogeneous multi-agents (actors) who act various behaviors based on their own purposes or strategies. What is important is that the director dynamically changes his interpretation of actors′ performances through the creative process of a drama, receiving feedback on his own evaluation (of a work in the creative process). The purpose of this study is to describe a system dynamics of such a process of making a drama. For this purpose, we implemented a field study in which real rehearsals for public performance are observed in detail, and attempted quantitative analyses on the dynamics in the creative process of a drama based on the theory of system dynamics. The relationships between director′s instructions and variances or fluctuations in the time series of actors′ performances, which are the responses to the instructions, were analyzed systematically. As a result, it was found that information embedded in timing was important to construct the reality of a drama. It can be said that well-balanced order was realized in the theatrical production as the whole system proceeded through rehearsals, although individual fluctuation of timing was included in performances by each actor.
In this paper, we consider Vladimir Propp's narrative study from the viewpoint of “de-composition and re-composition”. Propp (В.Я.Пропп) is a 20 century's Russian folklorist and is known as one of pinoneer of narratology. First we show a list of Propp's decomposed narrative elements and some examples of the re-composition as computer programs. Next, based on the attempt of Propp's de-composition and re-composition, we discuss the positioning of Propp model as the narrative rhetoric in narratology and the method and directions for introducing its model into our narrative generation system.
We investigated the relationship between activities performed while reading multiple texts and the integration of information from the texts. Participants sequentially read two complementary texts on the same topic while simultaneously performing a think-aloud task. The representation of the texts by the readers was assessed by (1) a sorting task, conducted before and after reading; (2) rating the relationship between pairs of terms in the texts; (3) summarizing the texts, and (4) completing a comprehension test. Study 1 indicated that readers who integrated the two texts attended to important parts of each text, made inferences, referred to the other text, and considered both texts in their representations. Participants who did not integrate the texts referred less to relevant parts of the texts, spoke in terms of impressions and associations, and made separate representations for each text. In Study 2, ten readers read the two texts twice. Our findings indicated that rereading helped develop an integrated comprehension. Moreover, readers who did not sufficiently comprehend the texts failed to make inferences during the first reading. These results suggest that, in general, performing elaborative activities while reading relevant sections of texts is related to developing integrated information about complementary texts.
This study examines a function of fillers as maintaining the speaker′s right to speak in conversation. We analyze the fillers appeared in the conversational data during the cooperative task in which 28 pairs of participants are engaged. In particular, it is investigated that how the hearer deals with the speaker′s fillers. The study reveals that while over 80‰ of fillers at the beginning of sentence and over 90‰ of fillers during the sentence are not interrupted by the hearer, there are some cases where the hearer does take the turn after the speaker′s fillers. Those cases seem to depend on the expression types of the fillers. The further analysis of the conversational sequences of the cases suggests that some of those hearer′s interruptions are inevitable or not improper. Even some “failure” cases, the hearer sees the filler as the indication of more talk to come from the speaker.
In this study, we investigated effects of having different perspectives in solving collaborative tasks. A simple reasoning task was given to several pairs of participants, each of whom discussed their views with their partner. Protocol analysis was performed to reveal how people exchange information with a partner who has a different perspective to achieve successful collaboration. In the experiment, we controlled participants′ perspectives, where the appearance of visual images was manipulated based on Gestalt psychological theory. Three conditions were set up: (1) the distributed-view condition, where one of two different perspectives was presented separately to each of the participants in a pair; (2) the dual-view condition, where two equivalent perspectives were presented together to both participants; and (3) the single-view condition, where only a single perspective was presented to both participants. The protocol analysis showed that the pairs in the distributed view condition who reached to solution engaged in the task with complementary interactive manners. On the other hand, the protocols of the pairs who could not reach solution showed that one of the participants shifted his⁄her perspective towards the opponents′ perspective. It is also argued that the problem solving in collaboration of pairs with different perspectives is performed through insight processes.
Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed by deficits in social interaction and linguistic skills, and restricted interests and stereotypic pattern of behavior. They have difficulties in motor, perceptual, cognitive, linguistic functions. In the present article, we proposed the comprehensive view point for understanding children with ASD; Relationships between various psychological functions, interaction between individual and environment, developmental mechanisms and developmental change by the appropriate intervention. We first described the profiles of ASD, prevalence, diagnostic criteria and resent assessment measures with the possibilities for very earlier screening in one year. Recent advancement of early intervention studies and the guideline for the application showed that early intensive treatment, pivotal behavior treatment, structured environment and parent-support program were effective for promoting the development of children with ASD. The developmental mechanism and treatment curriculum were analyzed in positive social interaction, joint attention, imitation, auditory comprehension, vocal production, verbal behavior and conversation. Children with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome have deficits in understanding ambiguous context, higher-ordered linguistic rules, social interaction and other's “mind”. We reviewed the treatment studies for these difficulties and found that the effective treatment included the “visualized” procedures, because children with ASD have “strength” in visual thinking. Video modeling and in-vivo role playing were effective for generalizing the acquired social skills to everyday life situation. We, as scientist ⁄ practitioner, discussed the future direction of evidence-based studies for developing children with ASD.