Spatial perception and cognitive mapping are two areas of research that invite comparison since they both involve fundamental geometric concepts, and researchers have applied psychophysical methods to examine spatial judgments in both domains. The first part of article discusses research that assesses the degree to which spatial judgments conform to various geometric axioms. In general, both spatial perception and cognitive maps violate many of the most fundamental geometric axioms, including metric axioms, compactness, the Desarguesian postulate, and free mobility. Of the two, cognitive maps show the most striking violations of even the most basic geometric concepts, including symmetry, transitivity, and Riemannian manifoldness. The second and larger part of this article performs a meta-analysis on psychophysical judgments for size and distance, comparing judgments made in perception research to those found with cognitive maps. The most striking results are that cognitive maps produce much lower power function exponents and much lower coefficients of determination for size and distance estimation than perception does. The meta-analysis presented here also shows that a number of the same factors influence both types of distance estimates including judgment method, whether judgments occur inside or outside, and stimulus range. Cognitive mapping exponents also rise with acquisition time and decline with increasing environment size. Several multivariate analyses are performed to yield a set of general psychophysical equations to predict size and distance estimates.
Distance from a stimulus, stimulus size and orientation with respect to the observer are relevant metric properties of visual space. However, whether and how these metrics are related to each other is not well known. Some studies have shown that estimates of egocentric distances are usually more accurate than judgments of exocentric distances, suggesting that there is dissociation between ‘localization’ judgments and ‘size’ judgments. Other investigations have revealed that the orientation of the stimulus influences the accuracy of size estimations. To better understand the relationships between these metric properties of visual space, we conducted an experiment to compare size perception as a function of orientation from viewer egocentric and exocentric frames of reference (FoR). Observers were instructed to draw two circles on a screen by clicking with a mouse when the screen was positioned on either the frontoparallel plane or the ground plane. From an egocentric FoR, egocentric distance and direction were processed asymmetrically, as knowledge of the particular combination of both size and orientation was always needed to compute visual direction. However, in terms of the accuracy of size estimates (S’/S) from an exocentric FoR, size and orientation were independent for all conditions. Therefore, the orientation did not need to be computed in order to compute the size. Regarding exocentric direction or orientation (α’/α), size and orientation were only dependent when the two points were presented successively. In conclusion, these findings suggest that orientation and distance always interact and that distance, visual direction or orientation require an egocentric cue.
The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of maps in the cognition of geographic space. The research topics were divided into (1) maps as a model of spatial cognition, and (2) maps as a source of spatial knowledge. As for the first topic, maps have become a conceptual model of the spatial cognition and enabled us to elaborate the model of cognitive processing of geospatial information, since Tolman (1948) devised the term of “cognitive map”. As a result, methods for measuring distortions in cognitive maps has been developed and applied by geographers. On the other hand, the role of maps as a source of spatial knowledge will become important as geographic information technologies spread among people. Specifically, advanced techniques for communicating geographic information through 3D view, animation, sound, and VR enabled by GIS lead to reconsideration of the dichotomy between direct and indirect sources of information. Hence, recent trend of digitization of geospatial information can change the role of maps in the cognition of geographic space.
We investigated what information of maps is available while walking in a complex actual city. We drew nine maps by manipulating landmarks, geographic and egocentric orientations, and distances. Each of ninety participants attempted to walk a complex route that was indicated in a map handed by the experimenter. The number of participants who found their way or the latency that was needed for them to find it was compared among the map conditions. Landmark was very effective: As the number of landmarks increased from 0 to 143, the proportion of the participants who found the way increased from 30 to 100%, with a decrease of latency. Egocentric orientation was also effective: Half the participants with the left-right reversal map failed to find the way, although there were ample landmarks indicated in the map. Either geographic orientation or distance was less effective: Most participants succeeded with the fragmental map that was constructed by cutting a standard map into small pieces and sequentially arranging them along the route. We compared these outcomes with the results of studies done in virtual reality space.
Two geometrical models (an affine transformation and a projective transformation) were applied as the mapping function between physical space and visual space (or cognitive space). In visual and cognitive spaces, one of geometrical properties is an anisotropic property. Both geometrical models have an advantage to be able to explain the anisotropic property. Based on the four experiments, in all cases, the projective transformation fitted the data better than the affine transformation . As the projective transformation includes the affine transformation as the special case, it is proposed to use projective transformation as the geometrical model of visual space and cognitive space. If the coefficients of x and y of the denominator of the projective transformation are close to 0, the affine transformation will be enough to explain the data. Otherwise，the projective transformation will be recommended.
The model to implement the process of the decoding of a spatial description to its spatial image -- topology of the adjacent relations - has been created. The model enables the implementation of the system that updates and maintains the spatial model(s) constructed from the discourse. The model is trying to solve the four problems concerning how to resolve the reference of an anaphoric expression, how to handle transition of the utterer's point of view, how to detect and eliminate inconsistent information, and how to understand implicit and/or incomplete descriptions. The solution relies on the four assumptions derived from the literature survey. (1) Interaction between the system and the user helps the system to understand the meaning and reference of an ambiguous or vague description. (2) The transition of a point of view is calculated by tracing the point and perspective of the effective point of observation. (3) Consistency of the spatial relations is maintained by the combination of a spatial reasoning algorithm and the dual graph representation formalism and its rewriting rules. (4) Incomplete and/or implicit description is complemented based on knowledge about spatial relations and architecture.
Psychological researchers have pointed out that as the distance between a viewer and an object increases, the perceived size of the object becomes larger than the size predicted using the linear perspective. This phenomenon is called “size constancy”. The purposes of this study are to determine a magnification-rate function for rendering a graphic image to fit it with size and distance impressions obtained in real space observation at a given distance, and to assess the validity of the magnification-rate function for computer graphic images. In the first experiment, we investigated the perceived size of an object placed at different distances, ranging from 1 to 10 m (short distance conditions), and from 4 to 120 m (long distance conditions). We found that the Z-ratio function (Thouless, 1931) can predict the perceived size for an object under the short distance conditions; however, it failed to predict the perceived size under the long distance conditions. Therefore, we applied a logistic function to predict the perceived size of an object under both the short and long distance conditions. In the second experiment, we asked observers to rate the fit of the size and distance of a computer graphic image with the perceived size and distance of objects in a real space. The size and distance of objects in the graphic images were determined using the magnification-rate function in terms of the logistic function, or the conventional linear perspective. We found that the observers gave higher scores for the images generated using the magnification-rate function than those generated using the conventional linear perspective. These results indicate that the magnification-rate function obtained in this study is more useful than the linear perspective in rendering computer graphic images to fit the size and distance of objects in the images with the real space observation.
In this paper, we discuss perceptive properties of people based on experiments by means of sequentially presenting pairs of pictures to an observer on a computer terminal.Observers are inquired whether they believe the subjects in the picture to have stayed in the same position or have changed positions, and if changed, whether they moved forward or backward and by how much. The precedent picture (called the standard picture) of each of paired pictures to be presented is taken of a person standing at fixed points of 9m, 13.5m and 27m in front of a camera. The antecedent one (referential one) is selected from the pictures that are taken of the same person who has slightly moved positions (0.5m, 1m, 1.5m in case of 9m standard position) in these three types of forward positions and three types of backward positions. We have some interesting results from the experiments concerning perception of forward/backward movement of a person. The results indicate that humans perceive a person to be approaching an observer more sensitively and accurately than that of a person departing from the observer. A result shows that the amount of perspective movement is closely related to the ratio of the size of person's images in the paired pictures. Additionally, observers estimate less of a change in movement at the farther points than from nearer points, and the background scene scarcely gives any effects on the estimation of the movement.
Path integration is a navigation process in which self-velocity and self-acceleration over time are integrated to update one's positions. The sensory inputs used in path integration are classified into internal and external information. The internal information consists of physical senses from the vestibular system and kinesthetic sense (proprioception and efference copy). The external information is primarily a visual one, obtained from the optic flow. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to point out the start points after traveling 3 paths (containing 3, 5 or 7 turns & legs) in body-based (Internal) or vision-based (External) path integration tasks. Performance in Internal was better than that in External, particularly in the path with 5 turns & legs. In Experiment 2, participants learned the relative locations of 3 points along the path in both Internal and External and were tested on the basis of the pointing accuracy between points. Performance in Internal was more accurate than that in External only when tracing back on the path was needed to estimate directions. The results suggested that the internal information is vital to update the homing direction at turns where we are prone to lose it and helps us to acquire survey knowledge by providing homing directions.
This study investigates the extent to which humans are aware of the space surrounding their bodies during daily locomotion. To capture this awareness in its natural state, our experiment adopted an indirect method that uses feelings of oppression and release caused by the surrounding environment. Participants continuously rated their feelings by turning a dial while walking along an outdoor route. The physical environment along this route was described in terms of the visible areas of buildings, trees, ground, and sky. Each area was measured from four different widths of view angles ranging from a limited view in front to a full 360° view. Analysis of the relationship between the ratings and measurements reveals that the feelings have the highest correlation with the 360° measurements. This result supports our hypothesis that humans are aware not only of the limited visual field but also of the entire surrounding space, including the space behind their bodies. Based on this finding, we discuss the traditional concept of spatial perception from an ecological perspective.
Prior studies have indicated that on cognitive load, topological spatial terms are more easily selected than projective spatial terms as a selection mechanism, i.e., “near” tends to be preferred over “left” or “right”. To clarify the effect of geometric factors on spatial term selection, we performed a psychological experiment using 3D generated objects with sentences describing each object in spatial terms in Japanese, e.g., hidari (left), chikai (near), and tooi (far). Results showed that the characteristics for determining the acceptability rating of each spatial term varied by term and also by geometric factors such as the position or size of the object and the location of the distractor. We also performed two other experiments to investigate the effects of changing both point of view and the objects' size, with the goal of gaining a better understanding of some projective spatial terms in Japanese, mae (front), ushiro (back). These experiments confirmed the importance of both viewpoint and the objects' size as factors within the cognitive model. Finally, we discuss a new cognitive model for spatial term selection based on these findings.
In the studies of deductive reasoning, the experiments have always been conducted with tasks with just one logically correct answer. In this paper, three experiments examined how the reasoning process with underspecified tasks can be explained. Underspecified tasks are tasks with an arbitrary correct answer or with no correct answer at all. Experiment 1a and 1b showed that participants tend to choose the option that is more difficult to draw a conclusion than the other. Furthermore, the factors leading to such selection bias included the differences in the number of logical symbols contained in the reasoning process between options and the reductio ad absurdum process. Protocol analysis in Experiment 2 revealed that reductio ad absurdum has more impact on selection bias.
Verbal probability statements such as “very certain” or “impossible” are often used to communicate information regarding uncertainty. This study aims to investigate how people estimate the “informativeness” of verbal probability statements. With regard to numerical probabilities (e.g., “30%”), Keren and Teigen (2001) proposed the “search for definitive predictions” principle; according to this principle, relatively high or low probabilities are preferred to medium ones because high or low probabilities denote the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a single outcome more strongly than they do medium ones. However, whether people adhere to this principle when they estimate the informativeness of the verbal probability statement remains an unresolved issue. Through two empirical studies, this study establishes a quantitative relation between verbal probability statements and their “informativeness,” which is similar to the principle of Keren and Teigen (2001). In addition, this study shows that the directionality of verbal probability (Teigen & Brun, 1999) also affects the informativeness judgment. Finally, this study formalizes the judgment regarding the informativeness of probability statements in terms of the information theory and argues that the “search for definitive predictions” principle can be interpreted as rational information estimation under the rarity assumption (Oaksford & Chater, 1994).
The purposes of the present study were to construct a humor elicitation model based on Comprehension-Elaboration Theory (Wyer & Collins, 1992), and to investigate the effects of Narrative Strategies on humor elicitation processes. 159 (79 male and 80 female) undergraduate and graduate students (18--25 yrs old) rated the model relevant variables after watching a videotaped RAKUGO performance. With structural equation modeling (SEM), it was confirmed that the model had generalizability and high intra-model consistency. The further results demonstrated that the performance with Narrative Strategies, compared to the one without the strategies, increased both comprehension and elaboration, which led to increase of humor.
It is thought to be an important brain function for us to modulate our cognitive state depending on recognition of interactive agents. From our behavioral experiment, we have shown that when subjects believed their interactive agent as a human being in a competitive game, specific behavioral tendency could be observed in comparison with a case that they believed their opponent as a computer and this tendency of subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; they are thought to have some problems in social interaction) was different from that of subjects without ASD. We consider that this tendency is a reflection of cognitive modulation depending on recognition of interactive agents. To explain computational theory of this tendency, we propose a computational model that consists of change detection and state space switching evoked by the change of environmental nature. From this model, we reproduce the result of behavioral experiment by a computer simulation and try to discuss our computational model is useful to understand about the brain function for frequent human social interaction.
建築研究のひとつに建築物や都市が構築する環境（構築環境, built environment）と人間の心理的反応や行動との関係を明らかにしようとするものがある．その多くは両者の関係に関する知見をよりよい建築空間や構築環境の設計に活かすことを意図する．人間と環境との関係を主に認知プロセスに焦点をあてて見る認知科学と同関係を建築や都市のありようの側から見る建築学との間には相補的な関係があると仮定し，最近の建築研究の中から認知科学における関心と関連がありそうなものを紹介する．日本建築学会計画系論文報告集または日本建築学会環境系論文報告集に発表された論文のうち，構築環境と人間との関係を扱う研究をいくつか取り上げ，その概要を紹介する．また，いくつかの論文の題目を紹介する．当該機関に発表された人間－環境系研究はこれらにとどまるものではない．最後に参考書籍の題目を挙げる． 建築学における人間と環境の関係の研究は大きく二種類に分けられる．ひとつは建築空間や構築環境とそこにいる人（主に居住者や利用者）との関係を対象とするものであり，ひとつは設計のための環境と設計者との関係を対象とするものである．ここで紹介する論文は前者に属する六編である．それぞれ，次のような特徴をもつ．第一論文（青木・朴・大佛）は都市空間の認知が概念図式に依存することをイメージマップを用いた実験によって確かめようとしている．第二論文（徐・西出）は展示空間における回遊行動と空間認知との関係を対象とし，実際の展示空間において実験を行っている．第三論文（末繁・両角）は都市空間における視覚的な情報と回遊行動との関係を対象とし，実際の市街を模した回遊行動シミュレーション実験を行っている．第四論文（掛井ほか）は非常時の避難行動を誘導するために有効な情報提示の形式を対象とし，建築空間を模した避難シミュレーション実験を行っている．第五論文（高橋・大井）は建築のインテリア空間の美しさの評価に関わる一般的な美的価値観を対象とし，被験者に刺激を提示する評価実験と被験者の評価構造を抽出するためのインタビューを行っている．第六論文（坂本ほか）は温冷感と色彩との関係を対象として，実験室において設定した温熱環境における暖色・寒色の注視傾向を測定している． 建築学におけるこれらの論文を紹介する理由は，認知プロセスのモデル化よりも建築設計や都市計画により強い関心をもつ研究者が人間と環境との関係にどのようにアプローチしているのかを知ることが認知科学者にとっても有意義なことであると信じるためである