The aim of this study is to clarify the characteristics of creative concept generation process in design. The authors analyzed the characteristics of the concept generation process by comparing between the linguistic interpretation task and design task, from the viewpoints of the thought types (analogy, blending, and thematic relation) and recognition types (commonality, alignable difference and nonalignable difference). In our experiment, the subjects were required to interpret a novel noun-noun phrase, create a design concept from the same noun-noun phrase, and list the similarities and dissimilarities between the two nouns. The results reveal that blending and nonalignable difference are important factors of the creative concept generation process.
Previous studies (Frank, 1988; Toda, 1992) have shown the sense of unfairness to be an adaptive module within social environments. While adaptive modules can function effectively in practical contexts, they can be obstacles to solving insight problems (Knoblich, 1999; Hiraki & Suzuki, 1998; Abe & Nakagawa, 2007). The purpose of this study is to test the effects of the sense of unfairness on problem solving. We hypothesize that the sense of unfairness will make it difficult to find the correct answer for this problem.To that aim, the ‘Transportation expenses problem’ is employed, which is a kind of insight problem with a social context. In order to investigate our hypothesis, we asked participants to solve the problem. The results indicated that the participants did not make a correct and unfair response but a fair and incorrect one. Furthermore, we compare solution rates for the standard ‘Transportation expenses problem’ problem with isomorphic problems that do not involve need to think about unfairness. The results indicate that the solution rates for the isomorphic problems were higher than for the standard version of the problem. The results are supportive of our hypothesis. The results of experiments suggest that the sense of unfairness interferes with the problem solving.In particular, it changes weight of each choice participants can select.
Attribute framing refers to an effect of descriptive valence on evaluations or decision making. According to “reference point hypothesis” proposed by McKenzie and his associates (e.g., Sher & McKenzie, 2006), a speaker chooses a frame based on his⁄her reference point, and listeners can infer the reference point from the mentioned frame. In the present study, we pointed out that people tend to prefer one frame in logically equivalent two frames when describing a situation, and explored the effect of difference in frame use on inference about speaker's reference point. Reanalysis of previous studies (McKenzie & Nelson, 2003) and experimental studies indicated that the difference in frame use influenced listeners' inference about speaker's reference point. The reference point hypothesis has difficulty predicting these results. We discuss cognitive processes of frame-based inference about speaker's reference point and implications for framing effects.