認知科学
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19 巻 , 4 号
認知科学
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  • 山内 肇, 小林 司朗, 岡ノ谷 一夫
    19 巻 (2012) 4 号 p. 418-433
    公開日: 2014/10/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this article, we report the differences in eye movement between experts and novices
    in “Mind Map,” a graphical note-taking method. Using a total of six different mind
    maps, we examine how subjects' eye movements followed the basic structure of each
    Mind Map stimulus. Each subject was asked to comprehend the content of the mind
    maps on a display. By using an eye-tracker built into the display, we were able to obtain
    both subjects’ gaze information and eye-movements without restraining their natural
    observing behavior.
    Our findings indicate that while novices observe the mind map on a branch-to-branch
    basis, as if they were following the note-taking process itself, experts first browse key
    information located around the central image of the note, then move onto more de
    tailed content. That is, while novice Mind Mappers thoroughly scan entire branches
    attached to a trunk, and then shift their attention to the next trunk, experienced Mind
    Mappers first browse the trunk, possibly to obtain a general idea of what the mind map
    is about, then shift their attention to detailed branches. This appears as though they
    were spontaneously building their own table-of-contents.
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  • 松田 剛, 神田 崇行, 石黒 浩, 開 一夫
    19 巻 (2012) 4 号 p. 434-444
    公開日: 2014/10/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    Many types of humanoid robots have been developed recently, and they are mainly
    designed for social interaction with human beings. The most communicative partners
    for human beings are other humans. Therefore, to develop successful communicative
    robots, it is important to know how closely they resemble a human. In the present
    study, we attempted to evaluate the human likeness of a humanoid robot (Robovie)
    by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Since activity of the human mirror neuron
    system (MNS) is thought to reflect the perceived human likeness of observed agents,
    we compared MNS activity during observations of an action performed by a human
    and the robot. Seven male and ten female participants were included in the study, and
    eventually, fourteen of them were analyzed. NIRS probes were placed at the bilateral
    premotor and primary motor areas, which are components of the MNS. Under obser
    vation conditions, stimuli were presented live or on a video monitor; there were four
    observation conditions, namely, live-human, live-robot, video-human, and video-robot.
    After the observation conditions, the participants executed the same action performed
    by the human agent in the observation conditions by themselves (execution condition).
    We identified the NIRS channels in which significant activation was induced under both
    the observation and execution conditions, and used this information to determine the
    possible regions reflecting MNS activity. We found no significant effect of the agent
    (human/robot) on MNS activity, and this indicated that MNS response in the motor
    related area is relatively analogous irrespective of the agent (human/robot). However,
    the effect of the mode of presentation (live/video) was found in a few channels. Two
    channels corresponding to the left ventral premotor cortex were activated more strongly
    in the live condition than in the video condition, particularly when the agent was the
    human. In contrast, one channel corresponding to the right primary motor cortex was
    activated more strongly in the video condition than in the live condition only when the
    agent was the robot. These findings suggest that live presentation of action is necessary
    to reveal true brain activity in actual situations.
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