認知科学
Online ISSN : 1881-5995
Print ISSN : 1341-7924
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20 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
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  • 遠山 紗矢香
    20 巻 (2013) 2 号 p. 177-203
    公開日: 2014/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order for students to constructively interact for rebuilding their own thoughts with
    peers, they should hold initial understanding of a topic before starting a discussion. The
    initial understanding should consist of both concrete evidence and abstract summaries
    that can be re-related to each other in discussion. This paper analyzed the effect
    of scaffolding for constructing initial understandings in university. “Question-Answer
    Tool” (Q-A tool) was provided to help students to extract structural elements such
    as theme, experiment procedure, results, implications, and assertions from research
    findings about cognitive science for a collaborative learning called“Dynamic Jigsaw. ”
    Students explain research findings to each other and summarize multiple research find-
    ings with their colleagues in the Dynamic Jigsaw. “ReCoNote” was also provided for
    students. It imports the extracted elements into each student’s concept map to support
    making relations among the elements. We compared 19 students who were supported
    by the Q-A tool and ReCoNote in 2004 and 17 students who were only supported by ReCoNote in 2003 using design experiment paradigms to measure the effect of the Q-A
    tool. All the concept maps and three explanations about research findings per group
    were analyzed. The Q-A tool-supported students could describe implications and asser-
    tions with appropriate evidence in their concept maps. In contrast, the non-supported
    students could refer to evidence but not implications or assertions. Furthermore, the Q-
    A tool-supported students described their original advanced implications drawn from
    the research findings through making relations between the structural elements and
    their original thoughts, and prepared summaries using two of the research findings by
    comparing and relating the two research findings’ structural elements in constructive
    interaction with peers.
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  • 関 博紀
    20 巻 (2013) 2 号 p. 204-223
    公開日: 2014/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study attempted to describe detailed observations of the actual process of ar-
    chitectural design, which have been performed by a professional architect in Japan.
    The observations were made on the basis of two surveys: a document survey and an
    interview survey. The following results were obtained.
    First, a proposal was composed of multiple modifications that emerged simultane-
    ously under the different constraints. Second, the emergence of one modification could
    lead to another, which was called the ‘linkage between modifications’. Third, the link-
    age was observed not only at the level of the modifications, such as ‘making the ceiling
    form like steps’ to the next modification ‘changing the ceiling height’, but also at the
    level of proposals which were made at intervals of few days. The linkage at the proposal
    level, which was called the ‘coupling of the modifications’, tended to include qualitative developments.
    These results show that understanding the activities involved in architectural design
    can be one method to pick-up and realise the potentialities of developing architectures
    that are intrinsic to the building site and not merely a reflection of the architects ’
    aesthetics,self-centredness or calculating activities. This issue might be worth dis-
    cussing in connection with the concept of ‘dwelling perspective’, which was presented
    in anthropology with an ecological perspective by Tim Ingold (2001).
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  • 小川 有希子, 金井 明人
    20 巻 (2013) 2 号 p. 224-248
    公開日: 2014/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the cognitive process when the viewers of narrative moving images appreciate its
    world and deepen their consideration, is it “story” or “rhetoric” to take an impor-
    tant role? This is the interdisciplinary point at issue cross-linking the domain where
    study such as art, literature, rhetoric, and a problem of representation, and a problem
    of cognitive-affective mechanism are connected with each other. Therefore this study
    used two images — “Tower of TARO” and “YUMEJI” which represent the life of two
    Japanese famous painters called Taro Okamoto and Yumeji Takehisa as materials, and
    examined that problem. The theory to explain the cognitive process of the type in
    pursuit of story development was enjoyment, and the theory to explain that of the type
    to receive the effect of rhetoric was irrational cutting. Structured cognitive model of
    enjoyment and irrational cutting was assumed. Participants were separated by story
    group and rhetoric group, and the validity of the model and the structural difference of
    each group between two images were examined by covariance structure analysis. The
    results revealed that the model to be constructed only in enjoyment was adopted in
    Tower of TARO, and the model to be constructed enjoyment and irrational cutting
    was adopted in YUMEJI. In addition, it was suggested that the concept reconsider-
    ation of story group tended to come under an influence of lines, and that of rhetoric
    group tended to come under an influence of screens. Based on these results, the present
    problem of art of narrative moving images was discussed generally.
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