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21 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の17件中1~17を表示しています
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特集-知覚研究の発展と展望
  • 永井 聖剛, 柴田 寛, 喜多 伸一
    21 巻 (2014) 3 号 p. 291-294
    公開日: 2015/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 横澤 一彦
    21 巻 (2014) 3 号 p. 295-303
    公開日: 2015/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recent research on human perception is selectively reviewed with a focus on emer-
    ging issues in cognitive science and cognitive psychology. An important new approach
    to perception is identified that emphasizes integrated processes involving relationships
    among different features extracted from multiple modalities. We propose this new
    approach termed “integrated perception”. Characteristics of “integrated perception”
    include an emphasis on trade-offs and interactive relations between perceptual pro-
    cesses, and incorporation implicitly connected processes as well as individual differences.
    These topics tend to be discounted in conventional approaches. Instead, conventional
    approaches in cognitive and brain sciences have been based on traditional reduction-
    ism which focuses exclusively on accounts of individual constituent processes, but not
    their inter-relationships. Alternatively, new research themes reflecting integrated per-
    ception feature topics such as: Attention, Object & scene perception, Representation
    of body and space, Trans-modal perception, Aesthetics, and Synesthesia (i.e. AORTAS
    project). Recent progress in this vein is introduced which concerns research on object
    view dependency, visual-thermal interaction, and Japanese grapheme-color synesthesia.
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  • 本吉 勇
    21 巻 (2014) 3 号 p. 304-313
    公開日: 2015/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Humans easily recognize objects and perceive their attributes such as shape, color,
    and material. To achieve these high-level functions, it has generally been assumed
    that the visual system must reconstruct three dimensional surfaces from the retinal
    image via deep neural computations. However, recent advances in computer vision
    and psychophysics lead to an alternative scheme that the human visual system utilizes
    low-level image features and their statistics directly to recognize 3D objects, scenes,
    materials, and even arts. This heuristics-based vision requires shallow computation,
    and is indeed suitable for quick and efficient comprehension of objects and stuffs in the
    real world. However, such a shortcut is insufficient to explain our ability of ’looking
    through the truth’ via careful scrutiny. The present paper reviews recent findings and
    debates concerned with this paradigm shift.
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  • 鑓水 秀和, 河原 純一郎
    21 巻 (2014) 3 号 p. 314-324
    公開日: 2015/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Extant studies have examined factors contributing to perception of attractiveness
    of individual human faces. Because those studies primarily focused on ratings of at-
    tractiveness of a single target face, it was unclear whether observers could perceive
    attractiveness of a group of people as a whole. The present study examined whether
    observers could compare the group-wide attractiveness between two groups consisted
    of multiple members. We predicted that observers should be able to discriminate which
    of the two groups was higher attractiveness. Observers were briefly (1500 ms) exposed
    with two frames of images each of which consisted of four faces and determined the one
    that they believed more attractive as a whole. The results indicated that discrimination
    accuracy was above chance level. Virtually identical pattern of the results was obtained
    when each group consisted of eight faces in Experiment 3 and when exposure duration
    was 500 ms or 100 ms in Experiment 4. These results suggest that observers could per-
    ceive attractiveness of a group of people as a whole when discriminating attractiveness
    of two groups of people.
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  • 伊藤 万利子, 三嶋 博之, 佐々木 正人
    21 巻 (2014) 3 号 p. 325-343
    公開日: 2015/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    We examined the relationship between dexterity and movement to facilitate picking
    up visual information in a skilled task, the kendama trick of “swing-in.” Two kendama
    experts performed the swing-in motion while wearing liquid crystal occlusion goggles in
    the control and experimental (occluded) conditions. Occlusion glasses were open in the
    control condition, but open and closed at pre-set intervals in the occluded condition.
    After practice, the results identified a preference for seeing of the zenith of the ball
    trajectory for both experts at all levels in the occluded condition. Ball movement in the
    anterior-posterior axis for both experts was larger in the occluded than in the control
    condition, and was changed by the opening time of the goggles for expert A. Head
    movement in the vertical axis for both experts was longer in the occluded than in the
    control condition, but changed by the goggle’s intervals for expert B. Ball velocity with
    the coordinate origin at the head for both experts was nearly constant when the ball
    trajectory was near the zenith in both conditions and when the goggles were open in
    the occluded condition. However, the orientation of the head was longer in the occluded
    than in the control condition.
    These findings suggest that both experts detected optical information for catching
    the ball when the ball trajectory was near its zenith in intermittent viewing conditions,
    and that it is easier pick up this information in the occluded condition due the longer
    duration of the nearly constant relative velocity of the ball. Both experts adjusted their
    actions to easily detect the necessary optical information under visual constraints, al-
    though expert A adjusted the movement of the ball and expert B adjusted his head
    movement to the goggle’s opening intervals.
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  • 髙木 幸子, 平松 沙織, 田中 章浩
    21 巻 (2014) 3 号 p. 344-362
    公開日: 2015/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aims to further examine the cross-cultural differences in multisensory emo-
    tion perception between Western and East Asian people. In this study, we recorded
    the audiovisual stimulus video of Japanese actors saying neutral phrase with one of the
    basic emotions. Then we conducted a validation experiment of the stimuli. In the first
    part (facial expression), participants watched a silent video of actors and judged what
    kind of emotion the actor is expressing by choosing among 6 options (i.e., happiness,
    anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, and fear). In the second part (vocal expression), they
    listened to the audio part of the same videos without video images while the task was
    the same. We analyzed their categorization responses based on accuracy and confusion
    matrix, and discussed the tendency of emotion perception by Japanese.
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  • 高橋 純一, 村井 諒平, 平野 智久, 行場 次朗
    21 巻 (2014) 3 号 p. 363-371
    公開日: 2015/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    We examined the effects of negative (anger, sadness, and disgust) and positive (hap-
    piness) stimuli on face recognition. We adopted the flicker paradigm composed of
    change-detection (Experiment A) and memory (Experiment B) tasks. In the change-
    detection task, each trial cycled through two displays separated by a blank display
    until a response was made. The participants (n = 20) were asked to attend to and
    detect the changed face. In the memory task, each trial cycled through the memory
    and blank displays for 10s. In accordance with the flicker paradigm, the cueing stimulus
    appeared in the location of a single test item for 1000 ms. The participants were asked
    to memorize and later recall which faces were presented in the cued location. Negative
    face advantage was observed in the change-detection task, whereas the positive face
    advantage was observed in the memory task. These results suggest that the detection
    process modulates the negative face advantage, while the memory process modulates
    the positive face advantage.
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  • 奥野 真之
    21 巻 (2014) 3 号 p. 372-381
    公開日: 2015/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    A motion picture consists of separate shots that are filmed at different times in differ-
    ent locations. Cuts, which are instantaneous transitions between shots, induce abrupt
    changes in view that have no counterparts in the real world. Despite these discontinuous
    transitions, film viewers are able to perceive a sequence of shots as a continuously un-
    folding event, being unaware of these cuts. The purpose of this article is to investigate
    the relationship between the unawareness of existence of these cuts and the structure
    of events in narrative films. In the experiment, participants viewed excerpts from fea-
    ture films and were instructed to intentionally detect cuts. To assess the relationship
    between cut detection and the structure of events, a logistic regression analysis was
    conducted. The results showed that the number of event segmentations and edit types
    were related to the detectability of the cuts, such that the detectability of the cuts
    increased with an increase in the number of event segmentations. Cuts accompanying
    scene continuity were missed more than cuts without any continuity. This study also
    discusses the relationship between the structure of events and film perception.
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  • 林 勇吾
    21 巻 (2014) 3 号 p. 382-395
    公開日: 2015/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study examines the use of multiple agents as experimental tools for inves-
    tigating human collaboration behaviors. The study suggests two types of methods to
    ensure the effective use of agents for human experiments: (1) instructing participants to
    believe that they are collaborating with actual human partners, and (2) using embod-
    ied agents equipped with social cues that use certain human characteristics. These two
    methods were investigated by conducting a controlled experiment in a collaborative
    problem-solving task where members had to insightfully change their perspective to
    discover the solution. The following two situations were investigated to determine the
    degree of perspective change based on previous studies on human group dynamics: (a)
    engaging with members with different perspectives (majority), and (b) engaging with a
    member with a different perspective (minority). Results showed that perspective-taking
    behaviors were detected in the two suggested methods. Specifically, the effects of the
    dynamics of group members (agents) with different perspectives had a stronger influence
    on perspective change. The study contributes to collaboration studies demonstrating
    new methodologies, such as using agents as experimental tools. Further, it presents
    interesting views on human interaction; interactions succeed not only when humans
    think they are interacting with other humans but also with artifacts that have simple
    designs like humans.
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  • 内藤 智之
    21 巻 (2014) 3 号 p. 396-406
    公開日: 2015/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    The reverse correlation method is a standard technique in visual neurophysiology
    for analyzing spatiotemporal structure of linear receptive field of early visual neurons.
    A new discrete-time reverse-correlation technique for the study of visual neurons was
    proposed to measure orientation and spatial frequency tuning of early visual neurons,
    the so-called subspace-reverse-correlation method. It was shown that if the neuron can
    be modeled as a spatiotemporal linear filter followed by a static nonlinearity, the cross-
    correlation between the stimulus sequence and the cell’s spike train output gives the
    projection of the receptive field onto the subspace of frequency space. Several advan-
    tages of the subspace-reverse-correlation method over standard white-noise techniques
    were reported. In this paper, I show the application of this method to psychophysics
    ,especially for measuring spatial frequency tuning of human perception. Furthermore,
    I show that this technique will be applicable and useful for wide variety of cognitive
    science research.A possible problems of subspace-reverse-correlation method are also
    discussed.
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  • 小川 昭利
    21 巻 (2014) 3 号 p. 407-419
    公開日: 2015/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of perception is to
    unravel the neural basis of the computational processing of the targeted perception. A
    standard fMRI study of perception generally uses simple stimuli, such as geometrical
    graphics in vision and pure tones in audition, and measures brain responses to such
    artificial stimuli, which are generated carefully. The target brain activity of percep-
    tual processing has been investigated using a contrast between stimulus conditions, to
    cancel out other processes. In contrast, the brain’s response to naturalistic stimuli is
    considered not to be a combination of responses to simple stimuli. The uncontrolled per-
    ceptual processes that are evoked in parallel hamper the analysis of the data in a simple
    factorial manner. In this article, I briefly reviewed fMRI studies that used naturalis-
    tic stimuli (e.g., photos and movies) and introduced nonstandard analytical methods.
    One was the computational model-based analysis of a hypothesis-driven study, and the
    other was the intersubject correlation of data-driven research. A model-based fMRI
    study can directly predict the brain responses to the processing of dynamic perception
    (e.g., motion perception in the middle temporal area). Intersubject correlation can be
    used to evaluate the reliability of fMRI signals in response to naturalistic stimuli. In
    addition, I introduced a decoding technique using pattern recognition, which has been
    used widely not only in the engineering but also in the neuroscience fields. Although
    the number of studies using naturalistic stimuli and novel analytical methods has in-
    creased, the standard fMRI study using simple stimuli and analysis remains the most
    effective approach to identify the neural bases of perception. I expect that these stan-
    dard and novel fMRI studies will contribute complementarily to the elucidation of the
    brain processes for naturalistic stimuli.
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