認知科学
Online ISSN : 1881-5995
Print ISSN : 1341-7924
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21 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の20件中1~20を表示しています
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巻頭言
野島久雄 賞―第2回
学会賞受賞者の言葉
研究論文
  • 守下 奈美子, 茂呂 雄二
    21 巻 (2014) 4 号 p. 438-450
    公開日: 2015/06/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study examined training instructor’s approach with regard to interaction in vo-
    cational education by observing boat training practice sessions in seafarer’s education.
    The discourse structure in the practice was defined using a rank scale model. The
    results were as follows: (1) as students acquired operation skills, the instructor used
    silence follow up (or “no follow up”) and increased their real vocational interactions;
    and (2) four patterns of the instructor’s approach that differed from those defined in the
    model were “jest”, “tease”, “reprimand/admonish”, and “general follow-up”. Overall,
    the findings suggest that these approaches by the instructor may be encouragements
    that students can form vocational identities.
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  • 千葉 元気, 都築 誉史
    21 巻 (2014) 4 号 p. 451-467
    公開日: 2015/06/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    In multi-attribute decision making, the presence of the attraction effect or compro-
    mise effect is considered a form of irrational choice because these effects violate the
    principles of rational choice. These two context effects are similar in that they increase
    the choice share of a particular option, but the mechanisms by which they occur are
    believed to differ, owing to the different trade-off structures of the choice sets concerned.
    Previous studies have indicated that negative emotions and the strategies employed in
    decision making differ between the two context effects and that these effects correspond
    to Systems 1 and 2 of the dual process theory. In this study, focusing on trade-offs, we
    examined the mechanisms by which these two context effects occur, by experimentally
    manipulating cognitive resources and measuring negative emotion and eye movement
    in decision making. We attempted to increase and decrease these resources by using a
    glucose drink and a cognitive depletion task, respectively. Results showed that the at-
    traction effect increased and the compromise effect decreased in subjects with depleted
    cognitive resources compared to subjects with restored cognitive resources. Negative
    emotions were strongly aroused in the compromise effect. Eye tracking data showed
    that a non-compensatory decision strategy was used in the attraction effect context and
    that a compensatory decision strategy was used in the compromise effect. These find-
    ings suggest that reasoning systems and decision strategies are directed by differences
    in the trade-off structure of the choice sets, which ultimately lead to the occurrence of
    the above two context effects.
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  • 新原 将義, 茂呂 雄二
    21 巻 (2014) 4 号 p. 468-484
    公開日: 2015/06/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Traditional study of music education perceives instructor’s teaching narrowly as how
    instructor teach knowledge that is previous in advance adequately, so instructor’s ac-
    tive and improvised encouragement had never been deal properly. This paper pointed
    out that and describes the scene of teaching of orchestra which was leaded by profes-
    sional conductor, and consider about instructor’s encouragement in practice of playing
    music, which is characterized as highly artistic. Result of analysis reveals 3 forms of
    encouragement by conductor. First is “scaffolding”, which makes clear the differences
    between good way to resolve the problem and action what was really done. Second is
    “re-configuration of resource”, which controls significance of score and indicate other
    player as resource. And Third is “actualization of tacit knowledge”, which actualizes
    the knowledge that is impossible to generalize in concrete scene of practice and music.
    Finally, this paper pointed out that every teaching of this study has “possibility to de-
    velopment” which makes possible for conductor to develop the teaching, and researcher
    need to consider these instruction as intermixed process, not as each independent pro-
    cesses.
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  • 山川 真由, 藤木 大介
    21 巻 (2014) 4 号 p. 485-496
    公開日: 2015/06/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This research proposed a new model of representational change in writing. In this
    model, two processes — the construction phase and the expression phase — are al
    ternatively repeated. In the construction phase, a mental representation of writing
    tasks changes from a propositional representation of sentence-by-sentence in text to a
    representation such as a summary of text, and finally changes into an abstract repre-
    sentation reflecting deeper understanding. The expression phase is the reverse of the
    construction phase; representation changes from abstract to propositional. Addition-
    ally, this research assumed that the expression phase consisted of an automatic process
    and a controlled process. The automatic process involves writing the main message,
    and the controlled process involves writing another sentence that adds information to
    the previously written sentence or gives concrete examples. After two experiments were
    conducted to confirm the hypothesis, the results revealed that a portion of the main
    written message was not related to the amount of resources necessary for the function-
    ing of the control system; moreover, the amount of resources required for the proper
    functioning of the control system facilitated a portion of the added sentences. These
    two results are significant in proposing a new model and understanding the writing
    process, and show that the mental process of writing includes an automatic process
    and a controlled process.
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