This study examined training instructor’s approach with regard to interaction in vo- cational education by observing boat training practice sessions in seafarer’s education. The discourse structure in the practice was defined using a rank scale model. The results were as follows: (1) as students acquired operation skills, the instructor used silence follow up (or “no follow up”) and increased their real vocational interactions; and (2) four patterns of the instructor’s approach that differed from those defined in the model were “jest”, “tease”, “reprimand/admonish”, and “general follow-up”. Overall, the findings suggest that these approaches by the instructor may be encouragements that students can form vocational identities.
In multi-attribute decision making, the presence of the attraction effect or compro- mise effect is considered a form of irrational choice because these effects violate the principles of rational choice. These two context effects are similar in that they increase the choice share of a particular option, but the mechanisms by which they occur are believed to differ, owing to the different trade-off structures of the choice sets concerned. Previous studies have indicated that negative emotions and the strategies employed in decision making differ between the two context effects and that these effects correspond to Systems 1 and 2 of the dual process theory. In this study, focusing on trade-offs, we examined the mechanisms by which these two context effects occur, by experimentally manipulating cognitive resources and measuring negative emotion and eye movement in decision making. We attempted to increase and decrease these resources by using a glucose drink and a cognitive depletion task, respectively. Results showed that the at- traction effect increased and the compromise effect decreased in subjects with depleted cognitive resources compared to subjects with restored cognitive resources. Negative emotions were strongly aroused in the compromise effect. Eye tracking data showed that a non-compensatory decision strategy was used in the attraction effect context and that a compensatory decision strategy was used in the compromise effect. These find- ings suggest that reasoning systems and decision strategies are directed by differences in the trade-off structure of the choice sets, which ultimately lead to the occurrence of the above two context effects.
Traditional study of music education perceives instructor’s teaching narrowly as how instructor teach knowledge that is previous in advance adequately, so instructor’s ac- tive and improvised encouragement had never been deal properly. This paper pointed out that and describes the scene of teaching of orchestra which was leaded by profes- sional conductor, and consider about instructor’s encouragement in practice of playing music, which is characterized as highly artistic. Result of analysis reveals 3 forms of encouragement by conductor. First is “scaffolding”, which makes clear the differences between good way to resolve the problem and action what was really done. Second is “re-configuration of resource”, which controls significance of score and indicate other player as resource. And Third is “actualization of tacit knowledge”, which actualizes the knowledge that is impossible to generalize in concrete scene of practice and music. Finally, this paper pointed out that every teaching of this study has “possibility to de- velopment” which makes possible for conductor to develop the teaching, and researcher need to consider these instruction as intermixed process, not as each independent pro- cesses.
This research proposed a new model of representational change in writing. In this model, two processes — the construction phase and the expression phase — are al ternatively repeated. In the construction phase, a mental representation of writing tasks changes from a propositional representation of sentence-by-sentence in text to a representation such as a summary of text, and finally changes into an abstract repre- sentation reflecting deeper understanding. The expression phase is the reverse of the construction phase; representation changes from abstract to propositional. Addition- ally, this research assumed that the expression phase consisted of an automatic process and a controlled process. The automatic process involves writing the main message, and the controlled process involves writing another sentence that adds information to the previously written sentence or gives concrete examples. After two experiments were conducted to confirm the hypothesis, the results revealed that a portion of the main written message was not related to the amount of resources necessary for the function- ing of the control system; moreover, the amount of resources required for the proper functioning of the control system facilitated a portion of the added sentences. These two results are significant in proposing a new model and understanding the writing process, and show that the mental process of writing includes an automatic process and a controlled process.