Based on a fieldwork in a human-robot theatre project, we analyze multimodal- ity and sequential organizations in human-robot interaction. In 2008, the collabo- ration between the Seinendan Theater Company and Osaka University began as the Robot/Android-Human Theater project. Their performances were carried out in 33 cities in 15 countries. From July to October in 2012, we video-recorded all the rehearsals of Sannin-shimai (Three Sisters, original story by Chekhov), written and directed by Oriza Hirata. In May 2013, we designed an experiment using Oriza:s theatrical ap- proach in order to investigate how a social robot meets a human in a shopping mall. This was conducted in an experimental room at the Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute (ATR) in Japan. We apply the concepts of F-formation and par- ticipation framework and analyze (1) how the director gradually shapes an interaction using human and robot/android actors, and (2) how the human actors gradually change their performances by themselves without the director’s instruction. These analyses on the stage and in the experimental setting provide an opportunity to better understand how people organize conversational interactions in daily life and to help design a better social robot in the future.
Much research on creativity and creation processes has been conducted in the domain of psychology and cognitive science. In recent years, a particular focus of research inter- est has been the social context of creativity and creation processes. However, there are two problems with the picture that emerges from these previous studies: 1) the studies were static, and 2) it is not yet clear how creators prepare resources for creative activ- ity. I performed fieldwork of activities of filmmaking students, in order to investigate the concrete preparation of resources by members of creation teams towards creative activity. Analysis of my field notes clarified the following points: 1) in preparing re- sources towards creative activity, the creation plan played the role of a hub; 2) the plan of creation and the prepared resources are mutually constituted; and 3) preparation of resources towards creative activity is leading to the development of a network of resources. Finally, I discuss the meaning of cognitive scientific research in the field.
The objective of this study is to construct a model of the archetypes of spatial schema that work as frames by which one understands the one’s experience of environment. The authors are trying to find the spatial schema as follows; 0) to experience a certain envi- ronment in a real field, 1) to make a collection of notes with pictures expressing one’s experience of environment, 2) to find the structure organizing the collection by KJ method, 3) to interpret the titles of the groups of the notes made during KJ method with respect to the spatial relations, and 4) to illustrate the results of interpretation in terms of visual diagrams. This paper shows an example of the above-mentioned process, which is performed in Harie village in Shiga prefecture as a real field. From the experiences in Harie, the authors found three kinds of spatial schema, which are metaphorically named as “spiral”, “overlap of domains”, and “stationary waves = elec- tron model”.
This study addresses how environments for specialists reciting a narrative are estab- lished when they (e.g., science communicators) need to give an explanation to non- specialists (e.g., visitors). To analyze the videotaped data, we employed the notion of spatial-orientation behavior (proposed by Adam Kendon). Spatial orientation com- prises two formation types: F-formation and H-formation. The F-formation is when the participants stand in an O-space, and everyone has an equal right to speak. The H-formation includes head position as a factor of the study; where, a single participant faces the rest of the participants that are typically lined-up in a row. The single par- ticipant has more rights to speak than the rest. This study focuses on the H-formation with the hypothesis that it is one way to signal readiness to start a narrative, i.e., establishes the environment to recite a narrative. Two case studies are provided in this study. Case Study I gives an example of the H-formation, wherein the specialist exerts a privileged right to talk to the novices. Case Study II illustrates an example of the F-formation, with the specialist ending up with starting the narrative to the novices, which acts as an excuse, as the specialist does not have the privileged right to talk to the novices. For one thing, the reciting of the narrative in this example only started as a response to a question from one of the novices. Additionally, the narrative including with the contraction structures by gestures giving novice the chance to notice the answer for his/her question. The results demonstrate how the type of formation relates to the construction and presentation of the specialist’s narrative. The results of the two analyses demonstrate that the formation consisted of the two types, and that participants use H-formation as a resource for establishing the environment for reciting the narrative.
This paper focuses on the practice of using the question, ‘Do you know X?’This ques- tion has been treated carefully in the community of science communicators (SCs). SCs have the role of connecting scientists and engineers with the general public in exhibition areas in science museums, where they construct dialogues with visitors. The dialogue can be a “delicate ”interaction for two reasons: 1) there is a fundamental difference in the motivation for the dialogue between SCs and visitors in a science museum, and 2) they need to share the goal of dialogue during an ongoing interaction, because they have no specific goal in advance, such as a medical consultation or a business meeting. Therefore, we analyzed the practice of using, ‘Do you know X?’as an example of a “delicate”interaction, based on a conversation analytic approach. We reveal that SCs use ‘Do you know X?’together with other embodied actions for the management of topics in dialogue, such as drawing out the visitors’degree of knowledge or interest in building a “bidirectional”communication. Our analysis also shows that SCs can shape the dialogue to fit the visitors’knowledge or the interest that visitors display publicly. In this sense, it is important for “bidirectional”science communication that not only SCs but also visitors are sensitive to constructing “dialogue”together.
This article reports field research on project meetings for developing an exhibition at a science museum. These meetings were held in consecutive weeks over half a year. The project team, consisting of members with diverse professions, collaborated on construct- ing a novel exhibition. In the process of construction, problems discovered by a team member often could not be solved individually. Therefore, members had to launch collaborative problem-solving by relying upon interactional procedures, wherein one member described a problem to the others. One of the procedures, which this article examines, involves the usage of concern-introducing expressions, “kini-naru/suru-no- wa/ga”(what the topic of concern is), appearing in approximately 30 meetings. These expressions are examined in terms of their linguistic features. An analysis of sequential relation of an utterance including this expression to the following utterances illustrates that these expressions play a role for requesting other members to cope with solving the problems presented. Finally, factors behind the use of concern-introducing expressions are discussed in the light of members’professions and function of emotion.
Conversational interactions contribute not only to the sharing of information and establishment of consensus but also to the construction and sustenance of mutual trust among conversational participants in our daily lives. The interrelationship between trust and conversational interactions has not been studied extensively in cognitive sci- ence. One reason for this lack of research is the fact that a study of social emotions such as trust requires real fields, since social emotions in their natural, non-artificial forms are not readily observable in laboratory settings. We introduce a notion of concern alignment to describe the surface conversational processes toward mutual trust forma- tion. Focusing on medical communications as our research field, we collected health guidance conversations between nurses and patients who were diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome, and we provide a qualitative analysis of the structure of conver- sations in terms of a set of dialogue acts we propose for the description of concern alignment processes. We demonstrate that the idea of concern alignment enables us to capture and elucidate both the local and the global structures of mutual trust formation in conversational consensus-building processes. We also discuss underlying mechanisms connecting concern alignment and mutual trust.
We interact with others even without utterances, because observation of others’bod- ily motions often enables guessing their intentions. Others’bodily motions serve as a major resource for mutual action and collaboration. In this article, we have analyzed, qualitatively with multimodal and fine-grained transcripts, “implicit collaborations” that are constituted by not only utterances but also bodily motions, and have revealed the way people organize those. The example domain we have selected is a table cooking of “monja-yaki”, because implicit collaboration occurs frequently during cooking. Our findings are the following: (1) reading appropriate timing based on observations of each other’s bodily motions made smooth transitions of cooking phases successful, and (2) even when the current speaker, addressing a certain hearer, asked a question and the hearer did not make an oral reply, the lack of reply did not cause any problem in their communication if the hearer intended to reply by his or her bodily motions, and the speaker properly attended to those. This way, communication and/or collaboration hold even without oral turn-taking.
We observed the performance processes of making a cake in near-natural condition in order to study the development of expertise. Ten participants (four pastry chefs of the cake shop, two instructors for the cake class, and four graduate students) took part in this observation. We analyzed participants’procedures in “cake nappe”. Typical patterns in micro-processes of making a cake were found by assuming total attuning to generate their expected appropriate results, which were “nappe (spreading cream on a cake)”, “scooping cream”, “cleaning the tool”, “disturbing posture”, and “checking”. Quantitative analysis revealed that frequencies of “cleaning the tool”and “disturbing posture”were different between beginner group and experts. And time-sequence di- agrams in each group revealed that beginner’s task were not organized. Qualitative analysis revealed that beginners’trial and error were associated with organization of posture. These results suggested that beginners’exploratory behavior would be neces- sary to be an expert.
In order to assess the development of children’s cognitive and social skills and to clar- ify the structure of family conversations as an area in which the developmental process is promoted, this study examines children’s behaviors in interactions with their family members. From videotaped, naturally occurring conversations in a Japanese family (including a parent, four and two-year-old boys), scenes in which the child avoids join- ing the conversations were extracted. An interactional analysis of the scenes reveals that family members collaboratively assigned the “side-participant”status to the child. Meanwhile, the child voluntarily gave up the role of addressee or next speaker. Our analysis of the scenes revealed that the gaze direction of the speaker was used as a cue to determine who the addressee was. Furthermore, the child could extract the meaning from the father’s utterances without gazing and nomination in order to speculate the child’s own participation status.
This longitudinal research examined an infant’s walking in the house for three months from the onset of walking, in order to describe where the behavior typically occurred. The beginning and end of locomotion were defined, and units of locomotion broken down into three aspects: 1. the posture at the beginning and the end of one unit, 2. locations where the locomotion began and concluded, and 3. paths of locomotion. The results for each of these aspects of locomotion were as follows, 1. Locomotion started from a sitting position in which the infant frequently touched the small objects coin- cided with carrying it at 80%. 2. From the erect position walking tended to commence in the surrounding area where the infant could hold on to items for support. 3.Loco- motion in one room was observed most frequently, though locomotion that crossed into other areas increased in the latter half of the three-month observation period. Travel diversified among areas that afforded the infant various activities, including passing through the area. However, some paths were frequently observed. These results sug- gest that the locomotion is conditioned by information of the surroundings, and the development of infant locomotion is characterized by the increasing connections to a variety of places in the house.
This paper aims to clarify the role of sign interpreters as an interactional participant in the multi-lingual and multi-party field that consists of Hearing people, Deaf people and sign interpreters. Previous translation studies pointed out role of sign interpreters from the perspective of discourse analysis. However they had not discussed about the role of interpreters from the view point of multi-party interaction. Therefore, we anal- ysed the procedures of getting addressees for turn-opening based on turn-taking system (Sacks et al. 1974). As a result of analysis, the problems concerning with the property of field were solved by sign interpreters who acted as interconnecting point of verbal and signed sequences. That is, sign interpreters played a traffic controller of interaction.
This paper reports linguistic fieldwork and the setting of a psycholinguistic exper- ment on Japanese Sign Language, the first language of Deaf people. The fieldwork aimed to investigate sign language with some Deaf linguistic consultants. First, we examined the linguistic environment around deaf people, which indicates that the age of acquiring sign language and their bilingual condition should be considered. Sec- ond, we investigated the matter of social status in which hearing researchers are the majority who oppress Deaf people as a minority in society. Third, while setting up a psycholinguistic task to collect linguistic data from several Deaf people, we found issues that need to be solved, such as their bilingual environment and visual modality dependence of their communication, and the linguistic elements of sign language. We found a phenomena that, while looking away, Deaf people say something the addressee cannot understand, but during eye contact with the addressee, almost all signs are comprehensible.
The purpose of the current study was to investigate which cognitive functions and personalities were related with the occurrence of the inattentive following in right-turn driving in intersections. Ten subjects drove the fixed routes in downtown city more than 35 times. Inattentive following was defined as the followings in the HQL driving database: 1) the number of visual safety confirmation decreased and 2) the speed at the maximum steering angle increased with a precedent right-turning car, compared to without it. These types of inattentive following are unsafe driving, and could lead to accidents. Subjects also participated in cognitive function experiment (Operation-span working memory) and answered personality questionnaires (independent – interdepen dent construal of the self, emotional empathy，impulsiveness etc.). Results indicated that subjects with low operation-span working memory, high interdependent construal, high impulsiveness, and high emotional empathy showed the trend of the inattentive followings in right turn driving situations.
Focusing on the process of a dancer’s acquisition of a new technique in breakdance, ,“Inside Ninety”, this longitudinal case study aims to disclose the process of skill acqui- sition through practice. We conducted a fieldwork study (participant observation and interviews) to analyze the dancer’s endeavours to acquire and improve skills. By avoid- ing the specification of goals and movements by the researchers, as is often the case
in experimental settings, we observed the development of movements in each practice session. The results indicate that the process of acquisition of a new dance technique consists not only of the refinement of a particular skill, but also of two other activities ;the exploration of new and original skill utilizing the characters of a particular skill, and the arrangement of that skill so that it should fit into his full performance. The process of an expert’s acquisition of a particular technique is a complicated and creative one, integrating each skill into a full performance.