認知科学
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22 巻 , 1 号
認知科学
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特集-フィールドに出た認知科学
  • 伝 康晴, 諏訪 正樹, 藤井 晴行
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 5-8
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 坊農 真弓
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 9-22
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    Based on a fieldwork in a human-robot theatre project, we analyze multimodal-
    ity and sequential organizations in human-robot interaction. In 2008, the collabo-
    ration between the Seinendan Theater Company and Osaka University began as the
    Robot/Android-Human Theater project. Their performances were carried out in 33
    cities in 15 countries. From July to October in 2012, we video-recorded all the rehearsals
    of Sannin-shimai (Three Sisters, original story by Chekhov), written and directed by
    Oriza Hirata. In May 2013, we designed an experiment using Oriza:s theatrical ap-
    proach in order to investigate how a social robot meets a human in a shopping mall.
    This was conducted in an experimental room at the Advanced Telecommunications
    Research Institute (ATR) in Japan. We apply the concepts of F-formation and par-
    ticipation framework and analyze (1) how the director gradually shapes an interaction
    using human and robot/android actors, and (2) how the human actors gradually change
    their performances by themselves without the director’s instruction. These analyses on
    the stage and in the experimental setting provide an opportunity to better understand
    how people organize conversational interactions in daily life and to help design a better
    social robot in the future.
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  • 土倉 英志
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 23-26
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    Much research on creativity and creation processes has been conducted in the domain
    of psychology and cognitive science. In recent years, a particular focus of research inter-
    est has been the social context of creativity and creation processes. However, there are
    two problems with the picture that emerges from these previous studies: 1) the studies
    were static, and 2) it is not yet clear how creators prepare resources for creative activ-
    ity. I performed fieldwork of activities of filmmaking students, in order to investigate
    the concrete preparation of resources by members of creation teams towards creative
    activity. Analysis of my field notes clarified the following points: 1) in preparing re-
    sources towards creative activity, the creation plan played the role of a hub; 2) the plan
    of creation and the prepared resources are mutually constituted; and 3) preparation
    of resources towards creative activity is leading to the development of a network of
    resources. Finally, I discuss the meaning of cognitive scientific research in the field.
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  • 篠崎 健一, 藤井 晴行, 片岡 菜苗子, 加藤 絵理, 福田 隼登
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 37-52
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    The objective of this study is to construct a model of the archetypes of spatial schema
    that work as frames by which one understands the one’s experience of environment. The
    authors are trying to find the spatial schema as follows; 0) to experience a certain envi-
    ronment in a real field, 1) to make a collection of notes with pictures expressing one’s
    experience of environment, 2) to find the structure organizing the collection by KJ
    method, 3) to interpret the titles of the groups of the notes made during KJ method
    with respect to the spatial relations, and 4) to illustrate the results of interpretation
    in terms of visual diagrams. This paper shows an example of the above-mentioned
    process, which is performed in Harie village in Shiga prefecture as a real field. From
    the experiences in Harie, the authors found three kinds of spatial schema, which are
    metaphorically named as “spiral”, “overlap of domains”, and “stationary waves = elec-
    tron model”.
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  • 牧野 遼作, 古山 宣洋, 坊農 真弓
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 53-68
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study addresses how environments for specialists reciting a narrative are estab-
    lished when they (e.g., science communicators) need to give an explanation to non-
    specialists (e.g., visitors). To analyze the videotaped data, we employed the notion
    of spatial-orientation behavior (proposed by Adam Kendon). Spatial orientation com-
    prises two formation types: F-formation and H-formation. The F-formation is when
    the participants stand in an O-space, and everyone has an equal right to speak. The
    H-formation includes head position as a factor of the study; where, a single participant
    faces the rest of the participants that are typically lined-up in a row. The single par-
    ticipant has more rights to speak than the rest. This study focuses on the H-formation
    with the hypothesis that it is one way to signal readiness to start a narrative, i.e.,
    establishes the environment to recite a narrative. Two case studies are provided in
    this study. Case Study I gives an example of the H-formation, wherein the specialist
    exerts a privileged right to talk to the novices. Case Study II illustrates an example
    of the F-formation, with the specialist ending up with starting the narrative to the
    novices, which acts as an excuse, as the specialist does not have the privileged right to
    talk to the novices. For one thing, the reciting of the narrative in this example only
    started as a response to a question from one of the novices. Additionally, the narrative
    including with the contraction structures by gestures giving novice the chance to notice
    the answer for his/her question. The results demonstrate how the type of formation
    relates to the construction and presentation of the specialist’s narrative. The results of
    the two analyses demonstrate that the formation consisted of the two types, and that
    participants use H-formation as a resource for establishing the environment for reciting
    the narrative.
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  • 城 綾実, 坊農 真弓, 高梨 克也
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 69-83
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper focuses on the practice of using the question, ‘Do you know X?’This ques-
    tion has been treated carefully in the community of science communicators (SCs). SCs
    have the role of connecting scientists and engineers with the general public in exhibition
    areas in science museums, where they construct dialogues with visitors. The dialogue
    can be a “delicate ”interaction for two reasons: 1) there is a fundamental difference
    in the motivation for the dialogue between SCs and visitors in a science museum, and
    2) they need to share the goal of dialogue during an ongoing interaction, because they
    have no specific goal in advance, such as a medical consultation or a business meeting.
    Therefore, we analyzed the practice of using, ‘Do you know X?’as an example of a
    “delicate”interaction, based on a conversation analytic approach. We reveal that SCs
    use ‘Do you know X?’together with other embodied actions for the management of
    topics in dialogue, such as drawing out the visitors’degree of knowledge or interest in
    building a “bidirectional”communication. Our analysis also shows that SCs can shape
    the dialogue to fit the visitors’knowledge or the interest that visitors display publicly.
    In this sense, it is important for “bidirectional”science communication that not only
    SCs but also visitors are sensitive to constructing “dialogue”together.
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  • 高梨 克也
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 84-96
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article reports field research on project meetings for developing an exhibition
    at a science museum. These meetings were held in consecutive weeks over half a year. The
    project team, consisting of members with diverse professions, collaborated on construct-
    ing a novel exhibition. In the process of construction, problems discovered by a team
    member often could not be solved individually. Therefore, members had to launch
    collaborative problem-solving by relying upon interactional procedures, wherein one
    member described a problem to the others. One of the procedures, which this article
    examines, involves the usage of concern-introducing expressions, “kini-naru/suru-no-
    wa/ga”(what the topic of concern is), appearing in approximately 30 meetings. These
    expressions are examined in terms of their linguistic features. An analysis of sequential
    relation of an utterance including this expression to the following utterances illustrates
    that these expressions play a role for requesting other members to cope with solving the
    problems presented. Finally, factors behind the use of concern-introducing expressions
    are discussed in the light of members’professions and function of emotion.
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  • 片桐 恭弘, 石崎 雅人, 伝 康晴, 高梨 克也, 榎本 美香, 岡田 将吾
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 97-109
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    Conversational interactions contribute not only to the sharing of information and
    establishment of consensus but also to the construction and sustenance of mutual trust
    among conversational participants in our daily lives. The interrelationship between
    trust and conversational interactions has not been studied extensively in cognitive sci-
    ence. One reason for this lack of research is the fact that a study of social emotions such
    as trust requires real fields, since social emotions in their natural, non-artificial forms
    are not readily observable in laboratory settings. We introduce a notion of concern
    alignment to describe the surface conversational processes toward mutual trust forma-
    tion. Focusing on medical communications as our research field, we collected health
    guidance conversations between nurses and patients who were diagnosed as having
    metabolic syndrome, and we provide a qualitative analysis of the structure of conver-
    sations in terms of a set of dialogue acts we propose for the description of concern
    alignment processes. We demonstrate that the idea of concern alignment enables us to
    capture and elucidate both the local and the global structures of mutual trust formation
    in conversational consensus-building processes. We also discuss underlying mechanisms
    connecting concern alignment and mutual trust.
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  • 坂井田 瑠衣, 諏訪 正樹
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 110-125
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    We interact with others even without utterances, because observation of others’bod-
    ily motions often enables guessing their intentions. Others’bodily motions serve as a
    major resource for mutual action and collaboration. In this article, we have analyzed,
    qualitatively with multimodal and fine-grained transcripts, “implicit collaborations”
    that are constituted by not only utterances but also bodily motions, and have revealed
    the way people organize those. The example domain we have selected is a table cooking
    of “monja-yaki”, because implicit collaboration occurs frequently during cooking. Our
    findings are the following: (1) reading appropriate timing based on observations of each
    other’s bodily motions made smooth transitions of cooking phases successful, and (2)
    even when the current speaker, addressing a certain hearer, asked a question and the
    hearer did not make an oral reply, the lack of reply did not cause any problem in their
    communication if the hearer intended to reply by his or her bodily motions, and the
    speaker properly attended to those. This way, communication and/or collaboration
    hold even without oral turn-taking.
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  • 松熊 亮
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 126-137
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    We observed the performance processes of making a cake in near-natural condition
    in order to study the development of expertise. Ten participants (four pastry chefs of
    the cake shop, two instructors for the cake class, and four graduate students) took part
    in this observation. We analyzed participants’procedures in “cake nappe”. Typical
    patterns in micro-processes of making a cake were found by assuming total attuning to
    generate their expected appropriate results, which were “nappe (spreading cream on a
    cake)”, “scooping cream”, “cleaning the tool”, “disturbing posture”, and “checking”.
    Quantitative analysis revealed that frequencies of “cleaning the tool”and “disturbing
    posture”were different between beginner group and experts. And time-sequence di-
    agrams in each group revealed that beginner’s task were not organized. Qualitative
    analysis revealed that beginners’trial and error were associated with organization of
    posture. These results suggested that beginners’exploratory behavior would be neces-
    sary to be an expert.
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  • 伊藤 崇
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 138-150
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to assess the development of children’s cognitive and social skills and to clar-
    ify the structure of family conversations as an area in which the developmental process
    is promoted, this study examines children’s behaviors in interactions with their family
    members. From videotaped, naturally occurring conversations in a Japanese family
    (including a parent, four and two-year-old boys), scenes in which the child avoids join-
    ing the conversations were extracted. An interactional analysis of the scenes reveals
    that family members collaboratively assigned the “side-participant”status to the child.
    Meanwhile, the child voluntarily gave up the role of addressee or next speaker. Our
    analysis of the scenes revealed that the gaze direction of the speaker was used as a cue
    to determine who the addressee was. Furthermore, the child could extract the meaning
    from the father’s utterances without gazing and nomination in order to speculate the
    child’s own participation status.
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  • 西尾 千尋, 青山 慶, 佐々木 正人
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 151-166
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    This longitudinal research examined an infant’s walking in the house for three months
    from the onset of walking, in order to describe where the behavior typically occurred.
    The beginning and end of locomotion were defined, and units of locomotion broken
    down into three aspects: 1. the posture at the beginning and the end of one unit, 2.
    locations where the locomotion began and concluded, and 3. paths of locomotion. The
    results for each of these aspects of locomotion were as follows, 1. Locomotion started
    from a sitting position in which the infant frequently touched the small objects coin-
    cided with carrying it at 80%. 2. From the erect position walking tended to commence
    in the surrounding area where the infant could hold on to items for support. 3.Loco-
    motion in one room was observed most frequently, though locomotion that crossed into
    other areas increased in the latter half of the three-month observation period. Travel
    diversified among areas that afforded the infant various activities, including passing
    through the area. However, some paths were frequently observed. These results sug-
    gest that the locomotion is conditioned by information of the surroundings, and the
    development of infant locomotion is characterized by the increasing connections to a
    variety of places in the house.
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  • 菊地 浩平, 坊農 真弓
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 167-180
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper aims to clarify the role of sign interpreters as an interactional participant
    in the multi-lingual and multi-party field that consists of Hearing people, Deaf people
    and sign interpreters. Previous translation studies pointed out role of sign interpreters
    from the perspective of discourse analysis. However they had not discussed about the
    role of interpreters from the view point of multi-party interaction. Therefore, we anal-
    ysed the procedures of getting addressees for turn-opening based on turn-taking system
    (Sacks et al. 1974). As a result of analysis, the problems concerning with the property
    of field were solved by sign interpreters who acted as interconnecting point of verbal and
    signed sequences. That is, sign interpreters played a traffic controller of interaction.
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  • 高嶋 由布子
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 181-193
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper reports linguistic fieldwork and the setting of a psycholinguistic exper-
    ment on Japanese Sign Language, the first language of Deaf people. The fieldwork
    aimed to investigate sign language with some Deaf linguistic consultants. First, we
    examined the linguistic environment around deaf people, which indicates that the age
    of acquiring sign language and their bilingual condition should be considered. Sec-
    ond, we investigated the matter of social status in which hearing researchers are the
    majority who oppress Deaf people as a minority in society. Third, while setting up
    a psycholinguistic task to collect linguistic data from several Deaf people, we found
    issues that need to be solved, such as their bilingual environment and visual modality
    dependence of their communication, and the linguistic elements of sign language. We
    found a phenomena that, while looking away, Deaf people say something the addressee
    cannot understand, but during eye contact with the addressee, almost all signs are
    comprehensible.
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  • 永井 聖剛, 西崎 友規子, 佐藤 稔久, 河原 純一郎, 平松 真知子, 寸田 剛司
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 194-202
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of the current study was to investigate which cognitive functions and
    personalities were related with the occurrence of the inattentive following in right-turn
    driving in intersections. Ten subjects drove the fixed routes in downtown city more
    than 35 times. Inattentive following was defined as the followings in the HQL driving
    database: 1) the number of visual safety confirmation decreased and 2) the speed at
    the maximum steering angle increased with a precedent right-turning car, compared to
    without it. These types of inattentive following are unsafe driving, and could lead to
    accidents. Subjects also participated in cognitive function experiment (Operation-span
    working memory) and answered personality questionnaires (independent – interdepen
    dent construal of the self, emotional empathy,impulsiveness etc.). Results indicated
    that subjects with low operation-span working memory, high interdependent construal,
    high impulsiveness, and high emotional empathy showed the trend of the inattentive
    followings in right turn driving situations.
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  • 清水 大地, 岡田 猛
    22 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 203-211
    公開日: 2015/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    Focusing on the process of a dancer’s acquisition of a new technique in breakdance,
    ,“Inside Ninety”, this longitudinal case study aims to disclose the process of skill acqui-
    sition through practice. We conducted a fieldwork study (participant observation and
    interviews) to analyze the dancer’s endeavours to acquire and improve skills. By avoid-
    ing the specification of goals and movements by the researchers, as is often the case
    in experimental settings, we observed the development of movements in each practice
    session. The results indicate that the process of acquisition of a new dance technique
    consists not only of the refinement of a particular skill, but also of two other activities
    ;the exploration of new and original skill utilizing the characters of a particular skill,
    and the arrangement of that skill so that it should fit into his full performance. The
    process of an expert’s acquisition of a particular technique is a complicated and creative
    one, integrating each skill into a full performance.
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