認知科学
Online ISSN : 1881-5995
Print ISSN : 1341-7924
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22 巻 , 2 号
認知科学
選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
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研究論文
  • 寺井 仁, 三輪 和久, 松林 翔太
    22 巻 (2015) 2 号 p. 223-234
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Reconstructing explanations perform a crucial role not only in the progress of science,
    but in educational practice and daily activities including comprehension of phenomena.
    We focused on the transition of attention on a key fact that contradicts the preceding
    explanation and has a central role in its reconstruction. We used a short story as an
    experimental material in which the participants first constructed a prior explanation
    and reconstructed it. The experimental results are summarized as follows. First, when
    the prior explanation was rejected, a new explanation was required, after attention on
    the key fact was inhibited. Second, hypothesized premises not inconsistent with the
    prior explanation were sought to protect the prior explanation. Third, the explanation
    reconstruction was facilitated by having the participants focus on the key fact. Last,
    attention on the key fact was recovered through explanation reconstruction.
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  • 髙木 紀久子, 河瀬 彰宏, 横地 早和子, 岡田 猛
    22 巻 (2015) 2 号 p. 235-253
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The process of formation by an artist of an art concept for the production of a new
    series of artwork has not yet been empirically elucidated. The goal of this study is to
    describe the process of art concept formation by a contemporary artist through metrical
    analyses of a text corpus based on interviews with the artist. From an analysis of the
    frequency of occurrence of items of vocabulary in the interview data and the TF-IDF
    (term frequency-inverse document frequency), we find that the second of three phases
    in the artist’s creative process was the most critical for the formation of the art concept,
    as shown in our previous qualitative study. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the art
    concept, White Noise, was inspired by a motif generated by the artist, and its contents
    were continuously modified and developed over time. Further, based on an analysis
    of co-occurrence frequencies of words, the structure of the art concept was deduced
    from the importance of co-occurring vocabulary. By means of visualizing the network
    of co-occurrence analysis, it is clarified that the feature words Large Glass functioned
    in the first phase as an intermedium for dividing the structure of the concept into two
    parts. In the second phase, these two parts of the structure of the concept became
    integrated into one. In the last phase, the structure of the concept was elaborated with
    the revived feature words, White Noise and Duchamp.
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  • 榎本 美香, 伝 康晴
    22 巻 (2015) 2 号 p. 254-267
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Speech act theory has been studied using artificial or small-world examples in many
    research fields such as philosophy, linguistics, and artificial intelligence. It is, however,
    unclear how this theory is applicable to real activities in the actual world. In this pa-
    per, we reconsider the speech act theory based on analyses of “commanding”utterances
    used by the leader of a group working together to drag big trees out of a forest. Our
    field involves i) a large number of actors participating in the activity, ii) huge objects
    manipulated in a huge space, and iii) physical actions performed in real time. These
    characteristics require some conditions that are to be met for a “commanding”utterance
    to be used felicitously. We show that these preparatory conditions of “commanding”
    are tightly connected to the prerequisites of the physical action that the commander
    requests the hearers to perform. We also demonstrate how the preparatory conditions
    are achieved interactively, concurrently, and in a situation-dependent fashion through
    multi-party collaborative interaction.
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  • 松浦 李恵, 岡部 大介, 大石 紗織
    22 巻 (2015) 2 号 p. 268-281
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper analyzes the relationship between participation and learning represented
    in ethnographic case studies of ten informants aged 23-59 participating in a common-
    based peer production site, the FabLab Kamakura community. Digital-based personal
    fabrication is a new wave culture of mavens, who are devoted to alternatives to mass
    production, and are on a mission “to make (almost) anything”. FabLab Kamakura is a
    valuable venue for exchanging information about, for example, digital tools, Arduino,
    crafts, textiles, and so on. First we frame this work as an effort to think about their
    participation and learning using the concept of “wildfire activity theory”(Engeström,
    2009) and “legitimate peripheral participation (LPP)”from Lave and Wenger (1991).
    Then we argue an overview of FabLab culture in Japan and at FabLab Kamakura. Us-
    ing SCAT methodology (Otani, 2011), we group our findings in two different categories:
    (1) learning through participation in FabLab Kamakura, (2) the visualization of weak
    ties and mobility through participation in wildfire activities. We conclude that partic-
    ipants at FabLab Kamakura are producing and designing available artifacts for their
    lives and works, and in doing so, what they are designing is the physical manifestation
    of their very thoughts.
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展望論文
  • 山本 由紀子, 仁科 エミ, 大西 仁
    22 巻 (2015) 2 号 p. 282-296
    公開日: 2015/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In musicology consonance is defined as the state where two or more tones simultane-
    ously presented sound pleasantly. Sensory consonance, which is perceived from tones
    isolated from a musical context, is largely independent of listener’s cultural background
    and musical experience. Several studies revealed that infants prefer consonant tones
    to dissonant tones and that nonhuman animals discriminate between consonant and
    dissonant tones. Since Helmholtz introduced the concept of sensory consonance in the
    19th century, sensory consonance has been studied actively. In the 1960s models became
    able to estimate the perceived consonance of complex tones from the physical properties
    of the tones. However, sensory consonance still contains a number of problems to be
    solved and has been studied by multiple approaches. This paper reviews the advances
    and issues in studies on consonance, especially sensory consonance.
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