認知科学
Online ISSN : 1881-5995
Print ISSN : 1341-7924
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22 巻 , 4 号
認知科学
選択された号の論文の22件中1~22を表示しています
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巻頭言
特集:三宅なほみ 追悼特集
野島久雄賞―第3回
学会賞受賞者の言葉
研究論文
  • 平本 毅, 高梨 克也
    22 巻 (2015) 4 号 p. 557-572
    公開日: 2016/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study examines the properties of gestures that serve to convey an image of the
    speaker. The gesture observed can be perceived as a sub-type of gestures that linguistic
    anthropologist Charles Goodwin termed “environmentally coupled gestures” in that the
    meaning of the gesture is determined not by its semiotic property but by the mutual
    elaboration of the gesture and other semiotic resources such as artifacts, utterance, and
    gaze. A conversation analysis was conducted based on data collected during interaction
    among members of a project team constructing an installation for a science museum.
    The results show that team members recurrently re-do gestures that convey the image
    of the speaker along with another gesture constructed to be coupled with the original
    gesture.
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  • 工藤 彰, 岡田 猛, ドミニク チェン
    22 巻 (2015) 4 号 p. 573-590
    公開日: 2016/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the writing style and revision process of
    a contemporary fiction writer from a cognitive science perspective. We focus on the
    work of Mishima Prize winning author, Otaro Maijo. Using Type Trace, a text editor
    devised by Dividual Inc., as an analysis tool for observing the writing process, we con-
    sider features that have not been detected by creative experiment, protocol analysis or
    manuscript research. Based on observations of Maijo’s writing process, firstly revisions
    are categorized as additions, deletions, substitutions, distributions, or consolidations.
    Secondly, revisions are further classified as “revisions at a generative point”, “revisions
    in a generative sentence”, “revisions in a generative paragraph”, or “revisions beyond
    the generative paragraph”, according to the remoteness of the revision from the point
    of composition. The results reveal that revisions such as the substitution of words and
    adjustments in sentence length were mostly performed together with text generation.
    All revisions that were made after an interlude took the form of revisions far removed
    from sentence generation. We find that Maijo’s writing style tends to be maintained
    for several weeks to months and then changes substantially.
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  • 久保 琢也, 小野 創, 田中 幹大, 小泉 政利, 酒井 弘
    22 巻 (2015) 4 号 p. 591-603
    公開日: 2016/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Research on sentence production often assumes that there is a universal mechanism
    for the sentence production. Nevertheless, languages investigated so far are typolog-
    ically quite limited. The aim of this paper is to investigate how VOS sentences are
    produced in Kaqchikel, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala, examining animacy
    effects on the choice of word order. We conducted two picture description tasks manip-
    ulating animacy of the patient entity in the event while the agent was always human
    being. Throughout those experiments, less VOS sentences were produced with an an-
    imate patient than with an inanimate patient, suggesting that the similarity between
    agent and patient, rather than the accessibility of the patient per se, affects the choice
    of word order in Kaqchikel. Based on these results, we argue that VOS sentences are
    produced in a way that an agent is processed first and retained in the memory until
    the end of the sentence.
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  • 藤田 早苗, 小林 哲生, 南 泰浩, 杉山 弘晃
    22 巻 (2015) 4 号 p. 604-620
    公開日: 2016/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    We aim to create gradual readability (or target age) measures from infants to elder
    children. For Japanese texts, several readability measures have been proposed, none
    of which is applied to texts for infants. Therefore, in this paper, we employ 123 pic-
    ture books which are clearly decided fine-grained target ages as criterial corpus. Then
    we investigate the applicability of two previous works to these picture books. Both
    works show modelate performance. Then we propose a method using new learner and
    features, and we achieved higher performance to guess the target age.
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  • 黒田 航
    22 巻 (2015) 4 号 p. 621-637
    公開日: 2016/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The research aimed to evaluate how reliably major Parts-of-Speech (PoS) (i.e., Noun,
    Verb, Adjective, Adverb) can be predicted from surface word forms —more concretely,
    ending character n-grams (n= 2, 3, 4) of surface word forms— of English and Czech,
    to compare the results from the two languages. It was conducted with two objectives.
    First, it wanted to establish the hypothesis that the degrees to which PoS is reliably
    predicated from surface word forms can vary drastically among languages, though effec-
    tive measurement of the predictability is unimplemented yet. (If a language has a high
    degree of predictability of PoS from surface word forms, we can say is has a high form-
    function transparency in PoS recognition.) Second, it wanted to show that English is
    a language whose vocabulary is relatively hard to acquire, as far as a good predictabil-
    ity of POS from word forms facilitates vocabulary acquisition, which is admittedly an
    unconfirmed hypothesis, with other things being equal.
    Results of Formal Concept Analysis (Ganter and Wille 1999) applied to the English
    and Czech data suggest that ending character n-gram of English words had noticeably
    less predictability than ones of Czech words in terms of major PoS, i.e., N, V, Adj and
    Adv, because they are highly confusing in English. This means that vocabulary acqui-
    sition can be significantly harder in English than in Czech, if other things being equal.
    The results also suggest that English was one of those languages in which effective PoS
    recognition requires multi-word processing strategy.
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展望論文
  • 河瀬 諭
    22 巻 (2015) 4 号 p. 638-648
    公開日: 2016/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this study was to review the roles of visual cues in communication between
    performers and audience members during a music performance. Although numerous
    studies have elucidated that visual cues convey such elements as performance manners,
    emotional expressions, musical structure, or sound expressions, little has been done to
    provide a holistic perspective of these findings. Thus, we scrutinized how visual cues af-
    fect the encoding of performers’ intentions or the decoding of a performance by audience
    members. With respect to each cue, the existing literature has revealed that body move-
    ment directs the manner of performance, emotional expression, and musical structures
    toward the audience members. Specific parts of the body, particularly, demonstrate
    this tendency. Facial expressions serve to convey emotional expressions and features
    of sound. Gaze is regarded as an important cue for communication, although its role
    remains unclear. Physical attractiveness and attire also influence performance evalua-
    tions. Overall, visual cues dominate over auditory cues and have a powerful impact on
    performer-audience interaction in many studies. These results contribute to a deeper
    understanding of music performance and music appreciation in concert or under mul-
    timodal conditions.
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ショートノート
  • 奥野 真之
    22 巻 (2015) 4 号 p. 649-658
    公開日: 2016/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    A motion picture is comprised of multiple shots, and filmmakers have developed
    techniques for projecting smooth and continuous transitions of shots. One of these
    techniques is known as a matching-action cut in which a cut occurs in the middle of
    an event and successive shots are spliced. The present study consists of an experi-
    mental survey that assesses editing methods for making a seamless match-action cut.
    Participants viewed short movie clips of various events, with varying camera angles,
    with different timing of cuts, and with time-sequence manipulation of shot transition
    (straight-match, ellipsis, overlapping). Movie clips were presented in pairs and partici-
    pants determined which of each pair set of clips appeared continuous. Based on those
    decisions, psychological scaling was conducted taking effect of time-sequence manipula-
    tion into consideration. However, from the analysis, a general preference for a specific
    manipulation was not confirmed.
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解説
  • 筧 一彦
    22 巻 (2015) 4 号 p. 659-669
    公開日: 2016/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Speech perception in prelexical processing is reviewed mainly due to the research of
    the author of this paper to show a view of speech perception.
    Phonemic features are distributed in time course by co-articulation in speech pro-
    duction. The distributed features are perceptually integrated to perceive the phoneme
    according to the intensity of the feature. The basic perceptual unit of speech is larger
    than phoneme unit. It is determined due to the timing (rhythmic) system of the lis-
    tener’s native language e.g. syllable (French), mora (Japanese), unit determined due
    to stress (English). These results indicate that the perceptual integration of phonemic
    feature is organized to perceive a basic perceptual unit.
    Then cross-linguistic experiments among French, Dutch and Japanese show that a
    listener of each language perceive the unit not to violate the phonotactic constraints
    of his/her native language. The results show that it is important to take into account
    language rhythmic system to learn the language as the second one.
    Finally, it is proposed that the study of speech perception could contribute to that
    of language acquisition and second language learning and vice versa.
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