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23 巻 , 1 号
認知科学
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特集-ことばはどのようにしてことばになるのか
  • 針生 悦子, 岡田 浩之, 小林 哲生
    23 巻 (2016) 1 号 p. 3-7
    公開日: 2016/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 池田 彩夏, 小林 哲生, 板倉 昭二
    23 巻 (2016) 1 号 p. 8-21
    公開日: 2016/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the field of language development, one interesting issue is how Japanese-speaking
    children acquire the case markers that play a role in understanding a sentence’s struc-
    ture, because previous studies reported that caregivers often omit them when talking
    to their children (e.g., Rispoli, 1991). Although grasping the characteristics of parental
    input on case markers is crucial for understanding a child’s acquisition process of them,
    the studies so far have shown insufficient data to clarify the qualitative and develop-
    mental characteristics of case marker inputs because of small sample size or a limited
    target age. This study used a larger sample of mothers (N=52) with children who
    ranged from 1 to 3 to measure their tendency to talk to their children using a struc-
    tured production-elicited task. Our results revealed that Japanese-speaking mothers
    tended to omit case markers more frequently when speaking to children than to adults.
    The omission rate also differed depending on the child’s age, the type of case mark-
    ers, verb transitivity, and maternal views about speech to children. Additionally, the
    mothers tended to omit arguments more frequently when speaking to children, sug-
    gesting that Japanese-speaking children have fewer opportunities for listening to case
    markers because of sentence simplification. These findings have important implications
    for investigating the relationship between parental language input and child language
    development.
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  • 山本 寿子, 針生 悦子
    23 巻 (2016) 1 号 p. 22-36
    公開日: 2016/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In Japanese, some homophones can be distinguished by their lexical pitch accentual
    patterns. When and how do Japanese children start using pitch accent information as
    a cue to lexical distinction? In this research, we taught children two novel labels as
    names for two different objects. One label was a novel homophone whose accentual
    pattern was different from a familiar word, and the other, a novel non-homophone of
    a familiar word. The children ’s learning of these two labels was tested by a picture
    fixation task and an object choice task. The two-year-old children learned the novel
    non-homophone; however, they failed to learn the novel homophone (Experiment 1).
    On the other hand, three- to five-year-old children succeeded in learning both the la-
    bels, and their performance improved with age (Experiment 2). These results suggest
    that Japanese children gradually develop the ability to use pitch accent information
    as a cue to lexical distinction in words throughout their childhood. The findings are
    discussed in terms of how Japanese children pay attention to pitch information in the
    learning of words.
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  • 梶川 祥世, 針生 悦子
    23 巻 (2016) 1 号 p. 37-48
    公開日: 2016/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー

    Onomatopoeias are frequently used in daily Japanese conversations and are a part of children’s early vocabularies. Previous studies have revealed that the phonetic structure and rhythm of onomatopoeia promotes word memory and production, and that sound symbolism functions as a cue to infer word meaning. This study examined whether the acoustic feature of speech is another factor that facilitates onomatopoeic word learning in children. The focus of the study was on voiced/unvoiced consonant contrasts related to the size of the referred object (e.g., dondon-large / tonton-small). First we analyzed mothers’ speech while reading a picture book that included onomatopoeic pairs contrasted with word-initial voiced/unvoiced consonants. Mothers read onomatopoeias that referred to small objects with higher fundamental frequency (f0) and lower amplitude than those of large objects. Then three-year-old children’s understanding of the onomatopoeic pairs was examined. The conditions were 1) original (acoustic features are almost identical between the onomatopoeias of small and large objects), 2) high 50 (the f0 of the onomatopoeias of small objects was 50 Hz higher than that of large objects), 3) high 100 (similar to the high 50 condition, but the difference was 100 Hz). The results indicated that the f0 is a possible cue to infer the meaning of onomatopoeias related to object size, and that the acoustic feature of speech would facilitate children’s learning of onomatopoeias.

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  • 池田 慎之介, 針生 悦子
    23 巻 (2016) 1 号 p. 49-64
    公開日: 2016/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In an utterance, paralinguistic information sometimes conveys the speaker’s affect
    differently from that which the lexical content indicates. In such a case, adults rely
    on paralinguistic information more heavily than lexical content to judge the speaker’s
    affect. However, young children often show a lexical bias (Friend & Bryant, 2000);
    they rely on lexical contents rather than paralinguistic information. Why do young
    children show this bias although even infants are very sensitive to speaker affect con-
    veyed by emotional prosody? We reviewed the literature and found two factors that
    may contribute to the appearance of this bias in young children. First, once children
    become capable of understanding speech, they rely more on lexical contents than emo-
    tional prosody, as their ability to infer speaker affect based on emotional prosody is still
    not as developed as adults’. Second, due to their immature ability to shift attention,
    young children have difficulty in transferring focus from lexical contents to emotional
    prosody when they encounter utterances whose lexical content indicates a different af-
    fect from the one inferred from the emotional prosody. We also suggest that future
    research should explore cultural influence on the appearance and disappearance of lex-
    ical bias as well as investigate the relationship between infants’ implicit sensitivity to,
    and children’s and adults’ explicit understanding of, speaker affect through speech.
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  • 橋田 浩一, 嶋田 総太郎, 今井 むつみ
    23 巻 (2016) 1 号 p. 65-73
    公開日: 2016/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Language acquisition is a process of symbol grounding, which is construction of sym-
    bol systems adapted to environment. Environmental adaptation defines the values
    which cognitive agents pursue primarily by means of hypothesis-test cycles encompass-
    ing both the inside and outside of their bodies. In addition to these directly grounded
    cycles, there are also hypothesis-test cycles within cognitive agents. Cognitive processes
    are combinations of these cycles, where cycles embody typical cognitive phenomena such
    as navigation and language use.
    Cycles are essentially countable, so that systems comprising cycles necessarily have
    discrete structures. A cognitive agent is hence formulated as a discrete system consist-
    ing of cycles including both directly grounded cycles and symbols (indirectly grounded
    cycles), where each cycle embodies some value or meaning directly or indirectly associ-
    ated with environmental adaptation. Computational models of cognition as combina-
    tion of such cycles (values = meanings) are far more efficient (simpler and less prone to
    overdesign) than traditional models stipulating possibly non-cyclic information flows.
    Environmental-adaptation cycles operate at multiple spatiotemporal scales, including
    real-time adaptive behavior, middle-term learning, and evolution across generations. It
    is vitally important to address real-time adaptation behavior in terms of cycles, which
    will raise the efficiency of the computational model not only at the level of real-time
    adaptation but also accordingly at higher levels. Cycle-based (meaning-based) com-
    putational models are necessary also because cycles derive meta-level constraints such
    as symmetry bias and naming insight, which are indispensable for abductive reasoning
    and language acquisition.
    Existing technologies including deep learning fail to reflect such a value-based
    (meaning-based) architecture of cognition. For the sake of thorough symbol grounding,
    novel approaches are necessary which should integrate environmental-adaptation cycles
    in the entire computational model at multiple levels of meaning and value.
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大会発表賞
  • 大西 仁
    23 巻 (2016) 1 号 p. 75
    公開日: 2016/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 斎藤 幹樹
    23 巻 (2016) 1 号 p. 76-79
    公開日: 2016/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー

    (受賞の言葉) この度は大変栄誉ある賞を賜り誠に光栄に存じます.私の研究は言語表現に対して感じ得る不自然性の要因を探るものです.本研究発表では日本語の(名詞‐名詞型)複合語において,「○○先生」や「○○学会」のような,前項名詞(N1) 部分がスロット(空欄)になっているような言語表現の知識が,不自然性の認識に関わっている可能性を示唆しました.本研究は人が言語表現を認識・理解するプロセスの解明という認知科学的側面に加え,言語学に対しては方法論的な側面も有しております.言語学における方法論は依然として盛んであるとは言えず,周辺的な研究であると見なされがちです.それもあり,この度このような栄誉ある賞を頂けました事は私自身にとっても,そして言語学自体にとっても非常に大きな出来事であると感じております.本研究は指導教官である谷口一美准教授と,実験方法の構築を含め多くの点で毎度貴重な御助言を下さる杏林大学の黒田航先生を始め,研究室の同僚を含む多くの方々の日頃のサポートの上に成り立っております.この場を御借りしまして皆様に心より感謝致します.(斎藤幹樹)

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  • 遠山 紗矢香, 益川 弘如
    23 巻 (2016) 1 号 p. 80-84
    公開日: 2016/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー

    (受賞の言葉) このたびは栄誉ある賞を賜り,大変光栄に存じております.ご選考くださいました先生方,本発表をお聞きくださった皆様に,心より感謝申し上げます. 本研究は,1 人では解くのが難しい問題でも2 人で話し合うことによって解けるようになる場合があることに注目し,こうした建設的な話し合いにはどのような特徴がみられるのか,建設的な話し合いをする児童はどのような学習を経てきたのかについて調査を行いました.子供たちが答えを待つのではなく,自分たちで話し合いながら考えて答えを作る協調学習に普段から取り組んでいると,話しながら考えを深める対話がよりみられ,その結果として2 人での解答が1 人よりも改善される傾向もみられました.今後はこの結果を,理解が深まる対話を引き起こすための協調問題解決場面を設計するための方法として活かすやり方を検討していく必要があると考えています. 最後になりましたが,本研究を行うにあたり様々なご指導をくださいました白水始先生,益川弘如先生,および調査にご協力くださいました小学校の先生方と児童の皆様,研究にご協力いただいた全ての皆様に,この場を借りて厚く御礼を申し上げます. (遠山紗矢香)

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