In relation to the recent development of ultra high definition imaging technique (4K) that have quadruple amount of pixels relative to high definition imaging (HD), it has been reported that observer’s subjective impression differ between these imaging. The present study examined how differences in resolution (4K and HD imaging) influence subjective impressions of movies in association with movie contents (natural/artificial objects) and fields of view (wide/medium/narrow) (Exp1). We also investigated the effects of the quantities of motion on subjective impressions of movies in different im- ge resolutions with the flame rate higher (59.94 fps) than the previous study (23.98 fps) (Exp2). We found that 4K movies, as compared to HD movies, induced stronger impressions regarding evaluation and comfort especially when they were presented with natural scene and/or larger field of view. It was also shown that 4K movies with higher flame rate induced stronger impressions regarding desirability and comfort regardless of motion quantities, contrary to the previous finding that 4K movies with the larger quantities of motion gave observer lower impression regarding desirability and comfort than HD movies. These results demonstrate that the differences in image resolution could modulate subjective impressions of movies in accordance with the differences in movie contents, fields of view, and flame rate. Moreover, the current findings suggest that there exist some desirable conditions under which the ultra high definition imaging could effectively enhance observers’ subjective impressions of movies.
To demonstrate the effects of harmonization between a word’s semantics and its typographies on human language word processing, we conducted a series of priming ex- periments using a word-fragment completion task. In the learning phase of experiment 1, words were presented visually as typography was manipulated to be either har- monized or anti-harmonized with a word’s semantics. The results indicated that the visual processing of a word was facilitated when the semantics of the word were harmo- nized with its typographies, compared with instances where they were anti-harmonized, which was observed as a result of decreased phonetic priming. In experiment 2, it was demonstrated that priming was decreased by harmonized typographies, but this decline was canceled by presented speech sounds compared with the results of experiment 1 although neutral speech sound recordings of words were presented with letters visually presented as words. In experiment 3, the harmonization was manipulated using not only letters but also speech sounds that were manipulated to be harmonized or anti- harmonized. The results showed that the processing of letters was interfered with by those harmonized speech sounds. These results imply that greater processing resources were used for the sensory modality that was manipulated its harmonization.
In reading, we are often engaged to the book, lose our self-awareness, transport our- selves into the narrative world, and have deep empathy for the characters in the books. These “absorption” phenomena have been characterized and classified based on reader’s introspective report using the questionnaires. However this methodology relying on in- trospective reports alone may not be accurately enough to study the absorption: the readers in the absorption cannot reliably report their experiences, as they lose their self-awareness to some degree by definition. This motivates this study to build an al- ternative measures of absorption, which we can evaluate its reliability by its consistency across multiple subjective and objective measures of reader’s states. We conducted two experiments by employing the first author as a subject in a natural and reader friendly situation. In the first experiment, we analyzed the cross correlation between reader’s absorption ratings and statistics, CVR-R and fractal dimension, esti- mated from reader’s heart rates. In the second experiment, we analyzed the relation- ship between reader’s absorption ratings and bodily movements using the classification tree technique. The results of these two experiments suggest that the CVR-R and the fractal dimension estimated from heart rates, and the bodily movement can be used as alternative measures indicating the level of reader’s absorption.
This study presents a model of human reasoning as a collection of micro-level in- ternal agents, and applies it especially to two problems: the four-card selection task (selecting cards to verify a conditional sentence) and the problem of three prisoners (a problem to estimate probability when an outcome proves impossible). In both the problems real people tend to report an intuitive answer which differs from one that is considered mathematically correct. In the presented approach, game theory is used to explain human reasoning, and connected to the frame systems and the society of mind proposed by Marvin Minsky. As it is assumed in a standard non-cooperative game the- ory, the internal agents do not have a language to communicate with other than game play. Also, it is assumed that the intelligence of agents is restricted only in terms of improving one’s expected payoff. At any step of reasoning, each agent microscopically responds (i.e., collecting labels) to a given collective action of other agents. The infor- mation response model, the best responses in standard game theory, is parametrized by the payoffs of a bimatrix game, so as to predict the observed patterns typically cho- sen/answered by real people at an equilibrium point of the game. Human reasoning is modeled as a path from the first (i.e., default) equilibrium point to the final equilibrium point. Moves between the two equilibrium points are represented using Lloyd Shap- ley’s labeling system and interpreted as Minsky’s frame system (or K-lines). It can be concluded that the proposed modeling can summarize and improve previous research on both the four-card selection task and the problem of three prisoners, which seems to have been inaccurately modeled in the literature.