In order to clarify the nature and mechanism of socially constructive interaction, this paper presents an analysis of an Hypothesis-Experiment-Instruction (HEI) classroom discussion in which 21 third-graders collaboratively developed a rudimentary scientific concept of air. The lesson unit consisted of 11 problems whose answers were to be pre- dicted and discussed one at a time. The analysis focused on the 8th class discussion, which is seen to be most critical for the conceptual change of the children. The author adopted two analytic perspectives: the framework theory perspective and the knowledge-in-piece perspective. From the framework theory perspective, each child’s model was unique. The diversity of the explanatory model in the class was main- tained in the entire discussion. From the knowledge-in-piece perspective, every child actively engaged in the discussion, integrating various knowledge pieces into his/her model. Role change between task-doing and monitoring in a collaborative situation basically led children to elaborate their models. Particular type of monitoring aroused in the classroom played an interesting role in constructing a newer model.
Individuals with creative literacy are acknowledged to play important roles in the
development of a creative society. This article reports design-based research into an artistic photography course aimed at enabling undergraduates to acquire creative lit- eracy.
The photography course, taught by a professional photographer, included the
following activities: lectures teaching the theory and practice of photography; appreci- ation
and imitation of acclaimed artistic photographs; reflection by the participants on
their own photo taking through diary writing; and an artwork exhibition in the class- room.
Twenty-one undergraduates participated in this course and acquired knowledge
of artistic photography. Interviews conducted one year after the end of the course re- veal that the number of students who practiced photography increased after the course.
They reported that they had benefitted from the hands-on experience of photo taking,
from acquiring knowledge and skills of photography, and from inspiration by artworks
encountered on the photography course.
This study examined whether collaborative problem solving (CPS) skills can be de- veloped in school through knowledge creation. We collected dialogue data from four lessons and analyzed how children engage in dialogue. The study subjects were children who had taken classes with a working-backward approach until the third grade and then lessons with a working-forward approach from the fourth-grade until graduation. The longitudinal dialogue data were analyzed in three ways. First, each utterance was coded as “team-coordination”or “contents-oriented.”Second, we counted the number of cy- cling processes between understanding and non-understanding based on the framework of constructive interaction. Finally, we examined the level of understanding based on the model of social construction of knowledge and understanding. The results suggested that the children developed their CPS skills through the lessons with a working-forward approach. This was supported by a cross-sectional study, wherein children were asked to solve a problem in pairs. The targeted school outperformed other schools with re- gard to the likelihood of constructive interaction. These longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses suggest that the frequency of constructive interaction could be an indicator of CPS skills. This study finally discussed the possibility that accumulative experience of knowledge creation through constructive interaction in lessons could develop children’s CPS skills.
The purpose of this paper is exploring potential for new learning through an ethno- graphic study in a nanosatellite-developing project generated from among “Nico- TECH:.”“Nico-TECH:”is a makers’community spreading like wildfire mainly medi- ated by NiconicoVideos. “Nico-TECH:”has no institutional organization. It is “ Social Media Satellite Development Project”(SOMESAT) which is the project for developing a nanosatellite on which “Hachune Miku”(Hatsune Miku) does performance in the space. From the result of the ethnographic study, SOMESAT was able to be taken as a goal- oriented project, and also a zone of human development such as a distributed, mobile and multidirectional pulsation. Activities which realized such a human development were partially mediated by architecture of NiconicoVideos to stimulate emergence of contents and ideas, and by a boundary crossing body of Hatsune Miku’s character. This paper must show potential for new learning and give some kind of suggestions about school education in the future.
This article describes the design and development of a system for sustainable inno- vation to foster an attitude of “learning forward”in teachers towards the discovery of new goals．Focusing on analysis of the collaborative research project being jointly im- plemented by the Consortium of Renovating Education for the Future (CoREF) of the University of Tokyo and the regional boards of education in the manner of design-based implementation research, the author analyzed two components of the project: 1) the existence of a shared concrete framework of practices and tools for reflection, and 2) a holistic structure consisting of tools and learning events, in order to test a hypothesis that those two components help teachers bridge the new framework and daily practices and change their concept of teaching and learning．The project has since evolved to share a concrete framework in the form of the “Knowledge Constructive Jigsaw method” with networks consisting of teachers, researchers and educational leaders working to- gether to design, practice and reflect lessons across subjects, schools and districts．In the process of analyzing the past six years of the project, the author found that the main focus of the project had changed from developing shared teaching materials to helping teachers mutually change their concept of teaching and learning and fostering their capacity to sustainably improve their daily practices. The change occurred as a consequence of scaling up the project and followed a redesign of the framework, tools and system itself.
In this paper, I studied college students’learning. They worked on “science cafe” projects, and successfully executed those projects. Science cafe is a type of workshop. I analyzed the following three research questions about their learning. First, did they learn about the theme termed “offstage interests”? Second, what features characterize “offstage interests”? Third, how did they learn about “offstage interests”? To elucidate these research questions, I collected data through interviews of college students, after science cafe activities for one year had been completed. The interviews were combined with the interviewees’reflections on these activities. By analyzing the data, I clarified the following three points. First, the college students learned about the theme termed “offstage interests.”Their learning about “offstage in terests”implies that they have become interested in others’offstage activities, such as concerts. The offstage activities are out-of-sight from the onstage activities that they appreciate or in which they participate. Second, their learning about “offstage interests”comprises taking a keen interest in, and empathizing with, others’offstage activities. Third, fostering learning about “offstage interests”requires two aspects: 1) undertaking various roles in the science cafes’activities, and 2) creating a framework of activities from scratch. Finally, I considered relationships among learning about “offstage interests,”knotworking, and active learning.