認知科学
Online ISSN : 1881-5995
Print ISSN : 1341-7924
ISSN-L : 1341-7924
23 巻 , 4 号
認知科学
選択された号の論文の18件中1~18を表示しています
巻頭言
野島久雄賞-第4回
学会賞受賞者の言葉
研究論文
  • 福森 聡, 五福 明夫, 佐藤 健治, 丸尾 智子, 谷野 雅昭
    2016 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 321-336
    発行日: 2016/12/01
    公開日: 2017/05/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    Mirror Visual Feedback (MVF) with a mirror box and Virtual Reality based MVF
    (VR-MVF) are known as one of several therapies within a rehabilitation for improve-
    ment of motor function after stroke and pain control. Our paper focuses on cognitive
    functions of temporal consistency between prediction with motor imagery and visual in-
    formation related to motor movements in using MVF and VR-MVF because of common
    features of the both MVFs. Healthy participants tried completing an experimental task
    to synchronize prediction of visual change of motor movements with motor imagery and
    visual information about motor movements in a virtual environment resembling VR-
    MVF. In the experimental tasks, visual information was provided in two conditions
    which are temporal delayed and not delayed. We evaluated that success and failure of
    twelve trials in experimental tasks, cortical activations measured with functional Mag-
    netic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and subjective experience collected by questionnaire
    during performing the experimental tasks. The participants could complete the consis-
    tency prediction of visual change and visual information in motor movements on the
    virtual environment. We found that prediction error is perceived when the prediction of
    visual change in motor movement is not consistent with visual information about mo-
    tor movement, and there are interindividual variability in the task completion related
    to the consistency. This suggests temporal consistency between prediction with motor
    imagery and visual information related to motor movement may be able to contribute
    motor learning on VR-MVF.
  • 市川 淳, 三輪 和久, 寺井 仁
    2016 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 337-354
    発行日: 2016/12/01
    公開日: 2017/05/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    In skill acquisition for periodic body movements such as cascade juggling, establish-
    ment of stable body movements seems crucial. However, we have a further question:
    do all jugglers acquire such common skills through standard developmental processes?
    Consequently, we mainly investigated development of three types of stabilities: the
    stability of chest movement representing torso movement, the stability of wrist move-
    ment representing arm swing, and the stability of time interval representing swinging
    rhythm. In addition, we also investigated participants’verbal reports on their inten-
    tional concerns for achieving optimum learning during practice. In the experiment,
    novices practiced three-ball cascade juggling over a period of one week. The findings
    revealed that two of the five intermediate level jugglers who performed over 100 suc-
    cessive catches established individually unique body movements. Results also revealed
    the possibility that such specific body movements related to their intentional focuses
    during practice.
  • 香川 秀太, 澁谷 幸, 三谷 理恵, 中岡 亜希子
    2016 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 355-376
    発行日: 2016/12/01
    公開日: 2017/05/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study constituted action research that nurses and researchers tried to change
    a training system for novice nurses by building a community of dialogue that went
    beyond existing frameworks. First, we interviewed the administrator, clinical educa-
    tor, and preceptor who were concerned with newcomer education and the design of
    the training system, and we analyzed the differences or gaps among their perspectives.
    Second, we planned and tried a cross-boundary method whereby the nurses exchanged
    knowledge and created a new training system for newcomers, negotiating the bound-
    aries among wards or between researchers and hospital staff. The micro-process of
    creating new knowledge through dialogue was examined using discourse analysis and
    activity theory. The results were as follows: new knowledge was generated; and the
    training system became multilateral. This was achieved through a process of continu-
    ous context transformation: from past-oriented interviews to a context on the border
    between past-oriented and future-oriented activity, then to a context of making con-
    tradictions visible, and so on. In this process, a ‘nonsense proposal’by the researcher
    (facilitator), one that nurses had laughed at and denied, also emerged as a springboard
    for new, important knowledge. The discussion also describes what was created, and its
    associated or conflicted heterogeneous historicity. This is discussed from the viewpoint
    of concepts of zone of time perspectives (ZTP) and inter-historicity.
  • 鶴島 彰, 小松崎 常夫
    2016 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 377-394
    発行日: 2016/12/01
    公開日: 2017/05/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    Human behavior under risky or dangerous situations is considered somewhat irra-
    tional from the viewpoint of objective risks. Recent studies have shown that it is
    innate in nature and had been acquired in the process of evolution. This means that
    such behavior is adaptive and must have some kind of efficiency or advantage in natural
    selection. This paper constructs a simulation model of the human evolution process and
    tries to acquire risk related behavior of Agents. Agents, which simulate life histories of
    humans, have shown risk accepting behavior over a large parameter space that specifies
    the environmental condition in which the evolution takes place. The relation between
    behavior under risky situations and life histories of organisms is also discussed.
  • 熊 可欣, 玉岡 賀津雄, マンスブリッジ パトリック マイケル
    2016 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 395-410
    発行日: 2016/12/01
    公開日: 2017/05/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    Previous experimental studies suggest that bilinguals’lexical access is language non
    selective, and that L1 word frequency plays a role in L2 word recognition. The current
    eye-tracking study investigated L1 frequency effects of lexical syntactic information
    during reading. Chinese-Japanese bilinguals read L2-Japanese sentences containing
    two types of cognate verbal nouns. Though these words were cognates, they differed
    in the frequency with which they appeared as passives between Japanese and Chinese.
    Stimuli items were all displayed in Japanese in either their active or passive voice form
    for both the experimental (low frequency of L1-Chinese passive usage, e.g., 指示‘in-
    struct’) and control (high frequency of L1-Chinese passive usage, e.g., 逮捕‘arrest’)
    conditions. The frequencies in L2-Japanese were controlled to be equal for all items.
    The results demonstrated that cognates with low frequency of L1-Chinese passive usage
    induced longer L2-Japanese reading times during early and late stages of processing in
    comparison to all other conditions. These cognates also displayed lower accuracy than
    their active voice counterparts. In conclusion, this study revealed that besides the over-
    all word frequency, the L1 frequency of syntactic information has substantial influence
    on the processing of the target L2 language.
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