認知科学
Online ISSN : 1881-5995
Print ISSN : 1341-7924
ISSN-L : 1341-7924
24 巻 , 4 号
認知科学
選択された号の論文の15件中1~15を表示しています
巻頭言
フェロー紹介
野島久雄賞―第5回
学会賞受賞者の言葉
研究論文
  • 遠山 紗矢香, 白水 始
    2018 年 24 巻 4 号 p. 494-517
    発行日: 2018/05/31
    公開日: 2018/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Why do some collaborations lead to fruitful outcomes and some don’t? What are the differences between effective collaboration and ineffective collaboration? These questions remain unsolved in spite of the great progress in collaboration research. In this study, we propose an assessment framework for evaluating collaborative problem solving (CPS) skills from a theoretical perspective of constructive interaction. The framework comprises observational and analytical methods. The observational method lets children solve knowledge-rich problems both individually and collaboratively and assesses the differences in performance between these two modes and processes. The analytical method analyzes the performance data and the process data from conversational and cognitive analyses. We have collected data from 110 elementary school pupils belonging to five schools. We chose three math problems from the Type B problems of the National Assessment of Academic Ability that are not easy to solve alone. We assigned one problem from the three to each pupil, asking him or her to first solve it individually in 8 minutes, then with the nearest partner in 8 minutes, and finally individually again. The results indicate that the pupils’ performances in the paired phase mostly were enhanced compared to those in the individual phase. However, there were successful pairs in which both members improved (e.g., solved the problem successfully) and unsuccessful pairs in which neither did. The cognitive analysis showed that the successful pairs discussed the meanings of numbers in the problem and tried to connect them with their knowledge or experiences more than the unsuccessful pairs did. In the successful pairs, the different levels of abstraction in the pupils’ ideas prompted them to reconsider their own ideas from different viewpoints, which further caused the members of those pairs to question or challenge each other. We propose that CPS skills should be defined as learners’ persistent endeavor to deepen their understanding in reaction to others’ contribution by tying their experiential and conceptual knowledge.
  • 渋谷 友紀, 櫻 哲郎, 佐々木 正人, 植田 一博
    2017 年 24 巻 4 号 p. 518-539
    発行日: 2017/12/01
    公開日: 2018/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     In Bunraku, a Japanese traditional performing arts, a play is performed in cooperation with the three elements, which called “Sangyo”; Tayu (narrator), Shamisen player,and Ningyo-tsukai (puppeteers). When such collaboration is successful, we say “breathe together” in Japanese. The word “breath” used in this way is in general regarded as a kind of metaphor. In the cooperative acts such as ensembles, however, performers have been reported to show synchronous breathing. The previous study (Shibuya et al., 2012) showed that breathing of puppeteers (chief puppeteers) in Bunraku become more aperiodic when they performed a play to Joururi which a Tayu narrated with a Shamisen than when they did without Joururi. This suggests a possibility that puppeteers coordinate their breathing to Joururi. In order to explore this possibility, this study analyzed the synchronous relationship between breathing of puppeteers (chief puppeteers) and some Joururi elements in Bunraku. As a result, the following two things are shown: first, a start point of expiration by a chief puppeteer has a tendency to be synchronized with the beginning of a continuous narration in Joururi where a Tayu starts expiration; second, a start point of inspiration by a chief puppeteer has a possibility of being synchronized with the first Shamisen sound between two successive continuous narrations in Joururi where a Tayu is likely to start inspiration. These tendencies of synchronous breathing with Joururi elements are more apparent in a puppeteer with long career than in a puppeteer with short career, suggesting that such synchronization in breathing becomes acquired along with proficiency.
  • 岡 隆之介, 楠見 孝
    2017 年 24 巻 4 号 p. 540-555
    発行日: 2017/12/01
    公開日: 2018/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     The present study aimed to verify whether topic description affects ease of metaphor production. It also aimed to verify whether the effect of topic description differs between metaphor and literal expressions. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 23) recalled and explained their past emotional experiences using an expression in two different topics:(i) actions, and (ii) emotional states they had at that time. In each topic, participants had to make two different expression types separately: (a) metaphor, and (b) literal. As indexes of ease of producing an expression, explanation time and subjective difficulty rating in producing each expression were recorded. We observed an interaction effect between expression type and topic description: In the metaphor condition, explaining actions took a longer explanation time and was subjectively rated more difficult to explain than actions. In Experiment 2 (N = 41), we put strong syntactical limitation on participant responses, and recorded thinking time in expression production and subjective difficulty rating. We observed an interaction effect between expression type and topic description: In metaphor condition, thinking about expression of actions took a longer time than actions. These results suggest that topic description affects ease of metaphor production.
  • 市村 賢士郎 , 楠見 孝
    2017 年 24 巻 4 号 p. 556-566
    発行日: 2017/12/01
    公開日: 2018/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to gain insight into overcoming the high dropout rate issue in computer-based learning. For this purpose, we focused on goal setting that acts as a source of motivation. We investigated how learners can be motivated by encouraging them to set effective goals by themselves. We used average scores as reference information and examined its effects on goal setting and task motivation. Three experiments were conducted using a sequential addition task in which participant’s task motivation was reflected in their performance. The presented average scores in comparison with participants’ own scores on the task were manipulated (high / low / no presentation of average score), and we compared goal set points and task motivation between each group. The results showed that participants in high average score condition set higher goals than participants in other groups, and there were positive correlations between goal set points and task motivation. Based on the results, we discussed the effectiveness of presenting reference information to encourage learners to set effective goals for sustainable computer-based learning.
文献紹介
  • 山本 健太郎
    2017 年 24 巻 4 号 p. 567-573
    発行日: 2017/12/01
    公開日: 2018/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     行為とそれに伴う感覚事象の時間的関係性は,因果関係の理解や,行為の主体感の生起に重要な要素の一つである.例えば電球のスイッチを押した際,光の点灯が行為よりも先行して感じられれば,光の点灯は自身の行為とは無関係に生じたと判断されるだろう.日常ではこのような時間順序の錯誤はほとんど生じないが,一方で,感覚間には神経伝達速度の違いがあり,同時に入力が生じたとしても,各情報はそれぞれ異なる時間に脳に届き処理されている.また,蛍光灯のスイッチのように,使用する装置によっては感覚事象の生起までに僅かな遅延が生じる場合もある.我々はこうした異なるタイミングで処理される情報をどのように関連づけ,行為と結果の関係性を理解しているのだろうか. 近年,行為や感覚事象の知覚的なタイミングが,行為の自発性によって変化することが示され,注目を集めている.意図に関連した結合(intentional binding,以下IB と略す)と呼ばれるこの現象は,我々が自身の行為とそれに伴う感覚事象の結び付きをどのように認識しているのかについて,重要な示唆を与えてくれる.本稿ではこの現象に焦点を当て,関連する二つの文献を紹介する. 一つ目に紹介する論文は,IB 現象が2002 年に初めて報告されてから10 年間の研究動向をまとめた総説論文である.特にこの論文では,IB の生起や程度にどのような情報が影響を及ぼすのか,IB が行為主体感のどのような側面と関連しているのかに着目して解説が行われている.二つ目に紹介する論文は,従来IB 研究で関心の持たれてきた行為に伴う感覚事象ではなく,行為を引き起こす感覚事象に着目し,その知覚タイミングを検討した研究である.一連の実験から,行為を誘発する感覚事象のタイミングが実際よりも遅れて知覚されることが示され,行為とそれに先行する感覚事象の間でも時間的な結合が生じることが示唆されている. これらの論文は,行為やその意図が前後の感覚事象と密接に関連づけられることを示している.このような関連づけは,我々の一貫した意識的世界の構築に寄与しているのかもしれない.一方で,それぞれの論文でも触れられているように,IB 現象と行為主体感の関係性については議論の余地があり,今後の更なる研究が待たれる.
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