In our everyday activities, every single action does not always smoothly shift to the next one. This even holds true for a simple task such as preparing a cup of coffee or some foods, although such actions appear to be well organized at first glance. In fact, small corrections of movements called ‘microslips’ by Reed & Schoenherr (1992), and short pauses occur frequently at the boundary of successive actions. These ‘stutters’ of actions seem to be related to the variability of the paths and flexibility of human behavior for achieving the goal of one and the same task. The present study observed 29 participants preparing a cup of beverage and some foods, and investigated how microslips and pauses were related to the shifts of actions in the task. The analysis shows that microslips and short pauses occur much more frequently in the shift of movements at the boundary of successive sub-tasks than the shift of movements within a single sub-task. The high frequency of microslips and short pauses in the shift of successive sub-tasks, it is suggested, results from the decreasing number of constraints of the task and, hence, the increasing number of opportunities of movements to be selected in the environment in the shift of successive sub-tasks.
In this paper, cognitive process model toward the rhetoric of the film based on relationships among the viewer's viewpoint, the film's rhetoric, the story as a constraint, and cognitive effect is proposed. In film cognition, a viewer takes some viewpoints to relate to the rhetoric of the film and its story is reorganized mentally on the basis of cognition of the rhetoric of the film. Affect and so on occur as results of film cognition. Moreover, a new viewpoint is sometimes established by cognitive experience of the rhetoric of the film, understanding the story, the affective effect or the relaxation of the constraint. A film generally uses its rhetoric to tell a story to adjust to viewer's internal constraint to the story understanding. The constraint of requiring a story is in effect when a film is viewed and people often relate to a film only within the terms of this constraint. However, “rhetoric of a film with a purpose of telling a consistent story” is only one possibility and “rhetoric of a film with a purpose other than telling a consistent story,” too, exists. The experimental results based on the model show that to relate to “rhetoric of a film with a purpose other than telling a consistent story,” a viewer must relax his/her constraint of needing to understand a story and set his/her viewpoint giving him/her some associative logic regarding the shots independent of the story.
We investigated effects of collaboration and characteristics of collaborative cognitive processes in creative problem solving through the protocol analysis. In our experiments, subjects were assigned to a single or pair condition, and required to generate ideas of new playground equipments. We analyzed the verbal protocols on the basis of the Geneplore model as a model of creative problem solving processes, which was suggested by Finke, Ward, & Smith (1992). The experimental results showed that (1) about effects of collaboration, the pair subjects generated higher scored ideas from the viewpoint of originality than the single subjects, (2) about characteristics of collaborative cognitive processes, the pair subjects developed, generally speaking, more actively explanation and evaluation behaviors about their ideas than the single subjects and (3) focusing on subjects' sequences of generating ideas, they added and modified their ideas more actively, and (4) the higher scored pairs in the pair condition unified and reconstructed their ideas more aggressively than the lower scored pairs.