As the volume of food waste globally exceeds 30% of the world’s total food supply annually, the reduction of food waste is a current priority for policy makers and researchers worldwide. Food waste is especially problematic in the tourism industry, where excessive consumption and solid waste leads to long-term negative social and environmental impacts to local communities. As food waste is 40% of the total solid waste generated by resorts, the reduction of food waste is an important component of decreasing costs in the low profit-margin tourism industry. Thus, industry and non-governmental organizations encourage social and environmentally sustainable practices, primarily though green certification programs, but such efforts have not yet resulted in significant impacts. Issues with program design and administration, lack of consumer demand, cost of program membership, and lack of program evaluative data have been cited as rational in the literature. However, the success of green certification programs in other industries, increasing consumer willingness to pay premiums for products and services using sustainable practices, and the potential for certification programs to reduce food waste shows the potential of such programs in tourism to be successful in the future. Hence, this paper provides a framework for green certification program design based upon MINDSPACE concepts from behavioral economics, where decision-making models seek to change the environment or context in which people make decisions. These contextual changes, or “nudges”, lead to improved decision making, and hence, can be used to encourage firm and consumer environmental and social responsibility. Program design and certified firm specific policies which address management, employee and consumer decision making using Mindspace behavioral cues will increase the probability of future success for green certification programs in tourism.
In the Philippines, agriculture contributes about 8.6% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Agricultural products are high volume, low value and highly perishable. These produce are generally wasted during the process of food distribution in the supply chain. Major contributors to huge losses are the inherent nature of these produce, the tropical setting of the country, lack of post-harvest infrastructure and facilities, the way of handling and the multi-layered distribution system. In the Philippines, substantial post-harvest losses of up to 50% was recorded from the initial harvesting, grading, packaging and transportation from field to storage and distribution to the consumers. To address these problems, agricultural development entails accelerating productivity and increasing linkages between farm production, agricultural services, industrial and technological inputs, and agro-processing. The context of agricultural development in the country involves a transition from farming to engagement in small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in the supply chain as processors. However, agricultural diversification and changing patterns in agricultural consumption poses both challenge and potential for change in reducing food loss in the Philippines.
Food loss and waste is becoming one of the ultimate food system challenges and, therefore, is a topic of growing interest worldwide. Many approaches and methods have been suggested to prevent or reduce food loss and waste. This paper describes an approach to monitor and prevent or reduce food loss and waste by using a food chain transparency framework. Food chain transparency requires a comprehensive and integrated farm-to-table approach; it implies that all stakeholders (the producer, processor, transporter, vendor, and consumer) play a vital role in ensuring the reduction of loss and waste. Essential information in a food supply chain needs to be adequately recorded and provided for all stakeholders in the chain to promote transparency and to enable the surveillance of food loss and waste. With this systemized transparency, each of stakeholders in food production and consumption understands the relevant aspects of products, processes, and process environments supporting well-informed decision-making. The need for food chain transparency is very critical, particularly because food is a very vulnerable to depreciation of quality and quantity if not well taken care of. This paper addresses the motivation, problems and complexities; current state of the art; application practices; research needs; and the future research framework and initiatives in food chain transparency. Our research on a cattle identification and registration system and traceability systems for the production chains of frozen loin tuna and frozen shrimp in the digital business system is discussed to provide more insights on the state of the art and examples of implementation of food chain transparency systems.
Japan’s low rate of food self-sufficiency—particularly in terms of its livestock industry—is a cause for concern. In addition, Japan annually generates food waste equivalent to 20% of the food consumed. Many producers of natto—a fermented soybean product with high nutritional benefits—face difficulties in disposing of expired products or surplus stock. To address these issues of food self-sufficiency and food waste disposal, we have been exploring the possibility of adapting unused natto as a feed for swine and poultry. Here, we prepared dried natto (DN) from commercial expired natto and investigated its suitability as a feed supplement for layer chickens. In preliminary studies, we confirmed that feed supplemented with 3% DN had adequate palatability for feeding to chickens. This study revealed that the egg productivity and feed conversion efficiency of chickens that received fed the diet with 3% DN did not differ significantly from those of a control group. In addition, DN supplementation did not affect various measures of egg quality, including shell strength and freshness, or alter the concentrations of isoflavones and vitamin E in eggs. However, yolk concentrations of vitamin K and cholesterol decreased after supplementation with DN; the water-insoluble fraction of DN caused the decrease in cholesterol. These results suggest that expired natto can be used as a feed supplement with decent effects on egg quality. Further study is needed to evaluate the reusability of various food wastes to build a worldwide food-recycling society.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious health problem, and the number of affected persons is increasing annually worldwide. Obesity is the main cause of diabetes. As an individual gain weight, adipocytes are observed to become bigger. Hypotrophic adipocytes shows decreased adiponectin secretion and increased free fatty acids and inflammatory adipokines, which leads to lowered insulin sensitivity and metabolic activity. In contrast, having smaller and fewer adipocytes lead to increases in insulin sensitivity and adiponectin secretion and decreases in the release of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, increasing the number of smaller adipocytes has been suggested as an effective strategy to prevent and treatment of T2DM. Although thiazolidinediones, such as troglitazone and pioglitazone, which are used currently to treat T2DM, can improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the number of small adipocytes, the side effects of these drugs include weight gain and liver failure. As an alternative treatment for T2DM, polyphenolic compounds, such as nobiletin and sakuranetin, reportedly induce preadipocytes to become small adipocytes. In addition, our recent study showed that the polyphenol cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), an anthocyanin, similarly induces 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to become small adipocytes, and several other researchers have obtained diverse evidence that supports the efficacy of Cy3G in the prevention or treatment of T2DM. Here, we summarize the activities of Cy3G that may support its use in the prevention of T2DM, focusing on the drug’s effect on adipocytes.
Horticulture has always been of fundamental importance to the Afghan economy; it has played a central role in the past and is still very important for a stable and thriving society. Despite the fact that only 12% of Afghanistan’s total land is arable and only about 6% is currently cultivated, Afghanistan’s climatic conditions are highly favorable for many tree crops, vegetable species, and seed production. During the 1960s, Afghanistan was the world leader in raisin production, and during the 1960s and 1970s, the export of high-value horticultural products accounted for 48% of annual export revenue in Afghanistan. In the 1970s, annual exports averaged around US$600 million, of which 30% was dried fruits and 70% was fresh fruits. It is estimated that income derived from horticultural products was three to seven times that of wheat. However, the last few decades of conflicts has caused widespread destruction of agricultural infrastructure, especially to orchards, and irrigation systems. The rebuilding of horticulture will allow Afghanistan to rise once again and provide abundant employment opportunities and livelihoods for up to 80% of its population. This will result in a better economy and increased food security. The re-establishment of horticulture should focus on good quality products with increased production. Developing modern horticulture in Afghanistan, with all its components and elements, will be a significant challenge; nevertheless, it has great potential to contribute to the redevelopment of the economy in Afghanistan.
The world loses approximately 1.3 billion tons of food—about one-third of the total produced annually for human consumption and an amount almost equal to the entire net food production of sub-Saharan Africa—through waste or loss. The issue of food loss is highly important in terms of its impact on hunger and food security, especially in the world’s poorest countries. The exact causes of food losses are varied and depend greatly on the socioeconomic conditions in any given country. Food losses in sub-Saharan Africa are basically influenced by crop production technologies and infrastructure. Until recently, the agricultural sector was the largest contributor to both gross domestic product and employment in Ghana, until it was overtaken by the service sector. The agricultural sector remains the largest employer in the Northern Savannah Ecological Zone (NSEZ) of Ghana. This zone encompasses about 54% of Ghana’s entire land mass and is considered to be the country’s bread basket. Even with its agricultural potential, The NSEZ is still considered the poorest part of the country. The zone is poor in part because very little has been done to tap its potential in terms of agricultural infrastructure investment. The infrastructure deficiencies in the agricultural sector have contributed to food losses from seedbed preparation to final consumption. There are huge losses along the whole value chain, thereby rendering smallholder farmers even poorer and more food insecure. A serious re-evaluation of infrastructure investment, including in roads, warehouses, and improved technologies, is needed to help increase productivity and reduce the amount of food loss in the Savanna Accelerated Development Authority zone. This would help ensure food security in the zone and in Ghana as a whole.