Journal of Epidemiology
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Volume 10 , Issue 1sup
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
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  • Hiroshi Shimokata, Fujiko Ando, Naoakira Niino
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 1-9
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new comprehensive longitudinal study of aging, the National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA) started in November 1997. The participants of this study will be 2, 400 residents aged 40 to 79 years who were ageand gender-stratified random samples selected from the NILS area. All participants provided written informed consent after a detailed explanation of the study. They will be examined at the NILS-LSA Examination Center every two years. Their first wave examinations will be finished by the end of March 2000. The examined variables number over 1, 000, including clinical evaluations, medical examinations, anthropometry, body composition, physical functions, physical activities, psychological assessments, nutritional analysis and molecular epidemiology. By the end of September 1999, 1, 643 men and women had completed their first wave examinations. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S1-S9.
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  • Fujiko Ando, Kiyoshi Takekuma, Naoakira Niino, Hiroshi Shimokata
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 10-17
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ultrasonic evaluation of the intima-media thickness in the common carotid artery (IMT-CCA) has been widely used as a marker of atherosclerosis. However, the definition of IMT-CCA is not uniform and it includes two quite different pathological changes; a general intima-media thickening and a local atherosclerotic change (plaque formation). The aim of this paper was to evaluate the IMT-CCA and local atherosclerosis separately, and to clarify how the IMT-CCA itself changes with age and how local plaques influence the relationship between the IMT-CCA and age. The subjects were 979 men and women aged 40 to 79 years who participated in the first wave examination of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILSLSA). The IMT-CCA measured at the thinnest point was significantly higher in men (0.61*0.15 mm) than in women (0.58*0.14 mm, p<0.01) and it increased with age (trend p<0.0001) in both genders. The IMT-CCA was higher with the presence of plaque in the bulbs (PLQ-BLB) than without PLQ-BLB (p<0.0001). Although this was a cross-sectional study, the IMT-CCA increased 0.06mm/10years with PLQ-BLB and 0.04mm/10years without PLQ-BLB. The IMT-CCA could be partially explained by age, gender and PLQ-BLB (r2=0.317). In this middle-aged and elderly population, an increase in the IMT-CCA showed a moderate relationship with local atherosclerosis and age. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S10-S17.
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  • Hideki Nomura, Naoki Tanabe, Shoko Nagaya, Fujiko Ando, Naoakira Niino ...
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 18-25
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (the NILS-LSA) started in 1997, and involves many kinds of examination. The objective of this paper is to outline the eye examinations in the NILS-LSA. The eye examinations consist of checks on refractometry, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, contrast sensitivity, kinetic visual acuity, visual fields, fundus photography, and lens estimation. The subjects were 1, 077 men and women aged 40-79 years who participated in the first year examination of the NILS-LSA. All subjective measurements (distant visual acuity, kinetic visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and mean sensitivity of visual field) declined significantly from the 50s. Age-related structural changes in the lens or hypertensive and arteriosclerotic changes in retinal vessels began at least in the 40s. It is suspected that aging affects the subjective visual functions from the 50s. However, changes in the structure of eye may begin before the 40s. The data from the eye examinations of the NILS-LSA are useful to assess the aging effects on vision and to investigate the relationship between visual function and physical or psychosocial health problems among the elderly. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S18-S25.
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  • Yasue Uchida, Hideki Nomura, Akihide Itoh, Tsutomu Nakashima, Fujiko A ...
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 26-32
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Audiometric test results from 933 community dwelling males and females were presented to obtain the norm for each generation after middle age. Three aspects were adopted in this analysis ; the cross-sectional aging transition of pure tone thresholds, the comparison in the self- perceived hearing difficulty among generations and the evaluation of middle ear function using multifrequency tympanometry. Subjects were divided into four age groups ; 40s, 50s, 60s and 70s. There were statistically significant differences in pure tone thresholds between almost any two age groups at each frequency in both genders, especially at higher frequencies. The pure tone thresholds were also discussed in regard to gender difference and laterality. A contradiction between self-perceived hearing difficulty and auditory accuracy was observed in the elderly generation. Analysis of tympanometric measurements was performed on static admittance at 226 Hz, tympanometric peak pressure at 226 Hz and resonance frequency of the middle ear. These variables did not show any systematic aging change. However, it was considered they represented the reference values of each generation. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S26-S32.
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  • Kiyoshi Takekuma, Fujiko Ando, Naoakira Niino, Hiroshi Shimokata
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 33-38
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate age and gender differences in current perception thresholds (CPT) in Japanese citizens. CPT values at frequencies of 2000, 250 and 5 Hz reflect different types of peripheral sensory nerve functions. Since there have been only a limited number of reports which investigated CPT values in community-dwelling people, little is known about variations with age and gender. The present study therefore concentrated on a large population of 1632 individuals (men; 818 mean ageq•standard deviation 59.4±10.9, women; 814, 59.4±11.1) in a Japanese community. Significant gender differences in CPT values at 250 and 5 Hz were observed. Multiple comparisons among 4 age groups (40s, 50s, 60s and 70s) showed age-related differences in CPT values at 2000 and 250 Hz in both genders. However, age and gender interactions with reference to CPT values appeared to be different between these latter two frequencies. At 5 Hz, only men showed age-related variations. These results indicated gender differences in fiber-specific aging changes. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S33-S38.
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  • Shigeki Tsuzuku, Naoakira Niino, Fujiko Ando, Hiroshi Shimokata
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 39-45
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To clarify age-related changes in bone mineral density (BMD) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), 1, 124 Japanese middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling people were examined. The BMD of the trabecular bone was assessed at the distal part of the radius (D50), and the BMD of the cortical bone was assessed at the diaphysis of the radius (P100). P100 during age 40 to 49 was significantly higher in females (1359.6±10.7 mg/cm3, mean±SE) than in males (1253.5±9.5 mg/cm3), while there was no difference in D50, 245.3±5.1 mg/cm3 in females and 293.0±5.5 mg/cm3 in males. Females and males aged 50 to 59 lost 8.09±2.08 (mean±SE) mg/cm3 and 3.80±1.77 mg/cm3 of D50 every year, respectively. As for P100, females lost 25.1±4.48 mg/cm3, and males lost 6.37±3.89 mg/cm3 every year. Because of these gender differences, both D50 and P100 were significantly higher in males than in females aged 50 and over. Assuming that the average BMD between ages 40 and 44 was the maximum bone mineral density (BMD max), the percentage change from the BMD max with age was examined. Females aged 60 to 69 whose BMD were under 70% of the BMD max made up 73.9% in D50 and 23.2% in P100. Only 21.1 % of males aged 60 to 69 showed less than 70% of the BMD max in D50 and only 3.8% in P100. The percentage decrease in BMD by age was larger in D50 than in P100 in both males and females. The individual difference in BMD was larger in D50 than in P100. These results suggest that pQCT may be useful to independently assess aging effects on cortical and trabecular bone density. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S39-S45.
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  • Hiroshi Shimokata, Yoshiji Yamada, Masanori Nakagawa, Ryu-ichi Okubo, ...
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 46-55
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Phenotypes of various genes related to geriatric diseases and the aging process were assessed in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILSLSA). The subjects were 1, 297 participants in the NILS-LSA. They were community-living males and females aged 40 to 79 years who were randomly selected from the area of the NILS. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of genes in the subjects were analyzed. Age and gender differences in the distribution of genotypes were also tested. The genotypic frequencies were as follows: (1) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype was I/I 46.2%, l/D 38.3% and DID 15.5%. (2) a 1-adrenoreceptor genotype was C/C 84.4%, C/T 12.7%, and T/T 3.0%. (3) Apolipoprotein E genotype was ε/ ε 0%, ε/ ε3 7.9%, ε3/ ε3 70.0%, ε3/ ε4 20.8%, ε/ ε4 0%, and ε 4/ ε 4 1.4%. (4) Cholecystokinin type-A receptor (CCKAR) nucleotide -81 (nt-81) genotype was A/A 59.1 %, A/G 35.1 %, and GIG 5.9%. The CCKAR nucleotide -128 genotype (nt128) was G/G 74.3%, G/T 23.6%, and T/T 2.2%. The combination of nucleotide (nt-81, nt-128) was (A/A, G/G) 59.1 %, (A/G, G/G) 14.1 %, (G/G, G/G) 1.1 %, (A/G, G/T) 21.0%, (G/G, G/T) 2.6%, and (G/G, T/T) 2.1 %. There were no subjects with (A/A, G/T), (A/A, T/T) or (A/G, T/T) genotypic combinations. (5) β 3-adrenoreceptor genotype was T/T 66.8%, T/A 28.5%, and A/A 4.7%. (6) Dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (DLST) nucleotide 19117 genotype was A/A 25.1 %, A/G 49.7%, and G/G 25.1 %. The DLST nucleotide 19183 genotype was C/C 55.8%, C/T 38.2%, and T/T 5.9%. The combination of nucleotide (nt19117, nt19183) was (A/A, C/C) 6.7%, (A/G, C/C) 24.1 %, (G/G, C/C) 25.1 %, (A/G, C/T) 25.6%, (A/A, T/T) 5.9%, and (A/A, C/T) 12.6%. There were no subjects with (A/G, T/T), (G/G, T/T) or (G/G, T/C) genotypic combinations. (7) Transforming growth factor-β 1 genotype T/T 35.2%, T/C 44.6%, and C/C 20.2%. (8) The platelet-activating factor acethylhydrase genotype was MIM 71.7%, M/m 27.2%, and m/m 1.2%. The mitochondria DNA 5178 genotype A was 42.1 % and C was 57.9%. There were no significant gender or age differences in tested genotypic and allelic distribution except for the DLST and apolipoprotein E. Differences in the genotypic frequencies of distribution using the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were significant in the ACE and α 1 -adrenoreceptor genotypes. J Epiderniol, 2000 ; 10 : S46-S55.
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  • Satomi Tsuboi, Yasuyuki Fukukawa, Naoakira Niino, Fujiko Ando, Osamu T ...
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 56-62
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this article was to expand past research by examining relationships between age awareness and related factors in Japanese middle-aged and elderly people. The subjects were 1, 129 participants (575 men and 554 women, aged 40 to 79 years) of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). They were examined with a questionnaire and interview. As a result, chronological age, self-rated health, and visual and hearing ability tend to be the related factors for awareness of aging. Comparing the demographic and physiological factors, however, major life events, difficulties and daily life experiences showed a stronger influence on age awareness. These results provide an interesting basis for the future understanding of adult development and the meaning of aging. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S56-S62.
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  • Yasuyuki Fukukawa, Satomi Tsuboi, Naoakira Niino, Fujiko Ando, Shotaro ...
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 63-69
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We examined the relationship among social support, self-esteem, and depression. The subjects were 1, 116 Japanese community-dwelling adults aged between 40-79, who were the first wave participants of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale that supported the superiority of the bi-dimensional structure of the scale marked by self-confidence and self-deprecation subscales. The subsequent causal analyses, using structural equation modeling, demonstrated that social support reduced depressed affect through an increase in self-confidence and a decrease in self-deprecation. By contrast, social support did not show a direct effect on depressed affect. The findings suggest the importance of esteem-improving elements of social support in reducing depressive symptoms. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S63-S69.
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  • Tomoko Imai, Sakiyo Sakai, Keiko Mori, Fujiko Ando, Naoakira Niino, Hi ...
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 70-76
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Food and nutrient intake of NILS-LSA participants 40 to 79 years of age were assessed through 3-day weighed dietary records by gender and age. The results were as follows. The intake of fats and oils, meats and beverages tended to decrease, but fruits increased with age in both males and females. Regarding nutrient intake, energy, protein, fat, and cholesterol showed a decrease as individuals aged. The nutrient intake in the 70 to 79 yr group was significantly lower than other age groups of both genders. The total dietary fiber and vitamin C intake increased. Salt intake exceeded 10g/day in every group. The percentage of energy from fat to total energy was higher than 25% in most age groups. The proportion of fatty acids was almost appropriate in all groups. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S70-S76.
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  • Rumi Kozakai, Shigeki Tsuzuku, Kyonosuke Yabe, Fujiko Ando, Naoakira N ...
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 77-81
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To prevent a decline in gait with age, it is necessary to investigate age-related changes in gait performance and detect related factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between gait ability and leg extension power among middle-aged and elderly people. Height, weight, maximum gait velocity (MGV) and leg extension power (LEP) were measured in 752 males and females who participated in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). Age-related changes in MGV and LEP and the association between MGV and LEP were assessed. There were significant decline trends in height, weight, MGV and LEP with advancing age (p<0.001). MGV showed a significantly positive correlation with LEP (in males: r=0.48 p<0.001, in females: r=0.47; p<0.001). Subjects aged 60yrs and over showed a significantly higher correlation than those under 60yrs in males, but not in females, after adjustment for height and weight. Although the relationships between MGV and LEP were different by age and gender, LEP may be one of the important factors in maintaining gait ability. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S77-S81.
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  • Michiko Koda, Fujiko Ando, Naoakira Niino, Shigeki Tsuzuku, Hiroshi Sh ...
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 82-89
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To prevent a decline in gait with age, it is necessary to investigate age-related changes in gait performance and detect related factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between gait ability and leg extension power among middle-aged and elderly people. Height, weight, maximum gait velocity (MGV) and leg extension power (LEP) were measured in 752 males and females who participated in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). Age-related changes in MGV and LEP and the association between MGV and LEP were assessed. There were significant decline trends in height, weight, MGV and LEP with advancing age (p<0.001). MGV showed a significantly positive correlation with LEP (in males: r=0.48 p<0.001, in females: r=0.47; p<0.001). Subjects aged 60yrs and over showed a significantly higher correlation than those under 60yrs in males, but not in females, after adjustment for height and weight. Although the relationships between MGV and LEP were different by age and gender, LEP may be one of the important factors in maintaining gait ability. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S77-S81.
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  • Naoakira Niino, Shigeki Tsuzuku, Fujiko Ando, Hiroshi Shimokata
    Volume 10 (2000) Issue 1sup Pages 90-94
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Frequencies and circumstances of falls were assessed among 1030 middle-aged and elderly people who participated in the NILS-LSA (National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Longitudinal Study of Aging) from November, 1997 to March, 1999 and responded to the questionnaires. The variables analyzed in the present study were demography and history of falls in the past one year. Circumstances of falls, e.g. time, location, activities associated with falls, cause of falls and degree of injury due to falls were asked when the subjects experienced a fall. Fear of falling was also investigated in all subjects. The prevalence of falls was 12.9% in the middle-aged group (40-59yr.) and 16.5% in the elderly group (60-79yr.). The distribution of time, location, activity associated with falls, cause and injury due to falls corresponded with previous fall studies among community-dwelling elderly people. The incidence of falls was extremely high during the daytime and outdoors. Falls occurred most frequently while walking. The majority of falls were due to extrinsic factors. About 40% of all falls caused no injury. As to the fear of falling, about 30% of the middle-aged subjects and about 60% of the elderly subjects reported that they were fearful. Our results suggested that fall accidents are not rare, even in middle-aged people. J Epidemiol, 2000 ; 10 : S90-S94.
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