Male breast cancer is rare. The total number of incidence in Osaka for the period of 1966-95 was 182. Male-to-female ratio for breast cancer incidence was 1:164 in Osaka during this period. Mean age of the male breast cancer incidence was 63.3. The numbers of incidence and the crude incidence rates for male breast cancer have increased during the last 3 decades, while the age-standardized rates have remained constant. The age-specific incidence rates for males showed a gradual increase with age, while those for females showed a steep increase beginning at twenty years of age and a peak around 45-49 or 50-54 years old. The age-standardized incidence rates of male breast cancer were lower in Japan than in European countries and North America, as were those of female breast cancer. Distributions of the histological type and the extent of disease were not significantly different between males and females. Relative 5-year survival for the male breast cancer was, however, lower than that for the female, especially in the "regional" stage and "distant" stage. Further studies on the sex-difference in survival will be mandatory based on high-quality hospital cancer registries' data, which provide detailed information on the clinical stage and treatment. J Epidemiol, 2001 ; 11 : 1-7
Stroke is the leading cause of severe disability in the elderly. Under the national insurance for care and assistance for the elderly starting in 2000, data must be obtained on the prognostic status of stroke patients in communities. We identified 322 incident strokes in six communities (total census population= 71, 610) during the two-or three-years survey period between 1987 and 1990, and we completed a follow-up of the respective prognoses of most of these patients at one, three, and five years after the onset (n=315 stroke patients) (98%). One year after stroke, 33% of the 315 strokes were dead, 13% were dependent, and 54% were independent. After three years, 44% were dead, 13% were dependent, and 43% were independent. After five years, 52% were dead, 9% were dependent, and 39% were independent. The long-term prognosis was poorer with increased age, and poorer for women than for men except in the case of men ages less than 55 years old at onset. Among patients who were dependents, the proportion of taken care at home was approximately 30% one year after onset, and 50% three to five years after onset. It is estimated that approximately 17 dependents from 127 incident strokes in a population of around 70, 000 every year. Because the average survival time of dependents was about 4 years, the prevalence of dependents is estimated to be 68, indicating that the prevalence is about 10 persons per 10, 000. Over the period of this study, and as compared with the reported proportions in community- based studies in the 1970's, the proportion of deaths declined and that of independents increased, probably due to reduced severity of stroke. However, the proportion of dependents did not change significantly over time. Thus, under the terms of the new national insurance, it is essential for family and communities to cooperate in taking care of dependent stroke patients. J Epidemiol, 2001 ; 11 :8-15
Purpose: To conduct an epidemiological survey of cataracts and examine the characteristics of lens opacities in Chinese Singaporeans. The results are then compared with those from two similar surveys previously done in Japan in Noto Area, Honshu, and Amami, Kyushu, respectively. Subjects and Methods: 468 subjects of*50 years of age, who responded to the invitation to participate, were examined. Examination principally included photo-documentation of the anterior and posterior segments of both eyes. Evaluation and grading of lens opacities were done using graphical analysis of Scheimpflug and retro-illumination images. Inter-group comparisons were based on statistical analysis of cataract prevalence and distribution. Results: The prevalence of clear lenses decreased with aging with no significant difference between males and females - a finding common to Singapore and the two Japanese study groups. The prevalence of cataracts (or lens opacities of Grade II and above) in 60-79 year-old Singapore subjects was significantly higher than Noto and Amami subjects in the same age group. Further, cortical opacity was the main type in Singapore subjects in their 50s and which was significantly higher than Noto subjects of the same age group. In all age groups, the distribution and prevalence of both nuclear and subcapsular types in the Singapore group were higher than the two Japanese study groups. Conclusions: Cataracts in Chinese Singaporeans are characterized by a high prevalence of nuclear opacities which was generally seen in tropics and sub-tropics. Our study also suggested the involvement of solar-UV in cortical cataracts as well as that of additional risk factors, such as environmental temperature and race, in nuclear and subcapsular cataract formation. J Epidemiol, 2001 ; 11 : 16-23
A necessary and sutticient condition of comparability for using AMFS was studied mathematically by considering the equivalence between SMR and CMF, as CMF was a perfectly comparable index. This condition was expressed by either proportionality of mortality vectors or proportionality of projected person-years to the plane spanned by mortality vectors of reference and index groups. We could obtain another expression of the condition, in which affect of distortions were easily understood, which consist of three factors: distortion of proportionality of mortality, distortion of person-years and similarity of distortions. Our results were applied to study the mortality of biliary tract cancer in Ibaraki Prefecture. Places where absolute difference between CMF and SMR exceeds some criterion (say, 0.15) were Satomi, Ushiboiri, Nihari in males and Gozenyama, Suifu and Asahi in females. All three distortion indices exceeded their upper 95% percentiles in Satomi in males. J Epidemiol, 2001 ; 11 : 24-28
Although seven years have passed after basic emergency medical technician (EMT) defibrillation.-systern was, introduced- in, Japan, . the .overall survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains poor. We investigated factors leading to such an unanticipated result in Japan by comparing the data of OHCA in Japan with those in other countries. We obtained population-based OHCA data from three communities in Japan. We also performed a comprehensive literature and manual search to identify reports that included rates for incidence and survival or provided sufficient data for the calculation of these rates of OHCA. Statistical analysis was performed to compare survival and incidence rates between the communities. We identified 36 articles from 16 countries by a comprehensive literature search. There was no significant difference in incidence and survival rates among communities in Japan. Although the incidence rate of collapse-witnessed OHCA with ventricular fibrillation (VF) was much lower in Japan than western countries, the proportions of survival from it were comparable to those. Basic-EMT defibrillation system in Japan has yielded excellent result in terms of the survival of VF cases. However, much lower proportion of VF to all cases is responsible for lower overall rates of survival from OHCA in Japan. J Epidemiol, 2001 ; 11:29-40
The objectivity, validity and credibility of research in clinical medicine can be enhanced by the appropriate involvement of epidemilogy. However, the overall contribution of epidemiology to clinical research, either as a methodology or as a resource for research, has been poorly quantified. We therefore assessed the involvement of epidemilogy in influential publications in the field of clinical medicine, and made an international comparison on a quantitative basis. The 500 most frequently cited papers published during 1981-96 in the field of clinical medicine in the US, the UK, and Japan were compared in terms of epidemilogical involvement using pre- determined criteria. The three criteria were based on the indexing of relevant MeSH keywords, publication types, or the departmental affiliations of the authors. For all three criteria, the proportion of clinical papers with epidemiological involvement was the highest in the US, followed by the UK, whereas it was the lowest in Japan. The difference was almost four-fold between the US and Japan. There was also an increasing trend of epidemiological involvement in publications of clinical medicine over the years, which was more apparent in the US than in either the UK or Japan. These findings may reflect inter-country differences in resources as well as in the stance towards evidence-based health sciences. J Epidemiol, 2001 ; 11:41-45
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