We determined the sources of nutrient intake of 59 men and 60 women in two rural towns in the Miyagi Prefecture, a northeastern part of Japan. Four 3-day food records were collected in four seasons within a year. The total dishes and recipes were classified into 197 items. Their percent contributions to the total population consumption of energy and 14 nutrients were calculated as the sum of the nutrient intake contributed by a given dish or recipe divided by the total nutrient intake from all the items. Rice was the largest contributor for energy (29.8%), protein (13.0%) and carbohydrates (45.3%). Miso soup, as a dish, was a leading contributor (7.1 %) for fat. The largest contributor for sodium, calcium, carotene, vitamin C were miso soup (17.1 %), milk (16.6%), spinach (23.6%), green tea (13.6%), respectively. The result suggests that the examination of nutrient sources based on dishes and recipes, rather than on food materials, may be useful in characterizing the dietary patterns of populations. J Epidemiol, 2002 ; 12: 1-8
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity from height and weight reported by parents. The subjects were 170 first-grade children (83 males and 87 females) and 206 fourth-grade children (99 males and 107 females). A questionnaire including questions on height and weight was distributed to children and completed by parents. Anthropometric measurements were conducted in the standard way. Ageand sex-specific cut-off points linked to adult overweight were employed to determine childhood obesity. The correlation and difference between reported and measured values were calculated separately for grade and gender. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.90 to 0.96 for height, 0.95 to 0.99 for weight, and 0.86 to 0.97 for body mass index (BMI). Sensitivity and specificity, the indices predicting the presence or absence of actual obesity from reported height and weight, ranged from 83.3 to 93.3 % and 96.3 to 98.9 %, respectively. The estimated prevalence of obesity (as calculated by reported data) minus actual prevalence (as calculated by measured data) ranged from -1.2 to 1.0 %. These results indicate that height and weight reported by parents provides a reliable assessment of childhood obesity. J Epidemiol, 2002 ; 12: 9-13
A total of 507 residents (232 males and 275 females) of a rural area of Hokkaido, Japan, were enrolled in the present follow-up study as the follow-up cohort. We investigated the relationship between mortality rates from cancer or all causes and blood levels of SOD activity and Zn/Cu ratio, and serum levels of SOD activity and lipid peroxides (TBARS), by following up our subjects over the course of 18 years. The hazard ratios of lowest blood levels of SOD activity and Zn/Cu ratios to mortality rates from cancer were 1.36 (95% C.I., 0.59-3.10) and 1.97 (95% C.I., 0.84- 4.63), and those to mortality rates from all causes were 1.31 (95%C.I: 0.76-2.27) and 1.99 (95%C.I.: 1.14-3.46), respectively, in comparison with subjects with highest values for these factors. Hazard ratios of lowest serum levels of SOD activity and TBARS to mortality rates from cancer were 2.68 (95%C.I., 1.05-6.82) and 0.71 (95%C.I.: 0.31-1.67), and those to mortality rates from all causes were 1.55 (95% C.I., 0.90-2.66) and 0.88 (95%C.I.: 0.51-1.50), respectively. The results of this follow-up study indicate that high serum SOD activity is associated with protective effects against mortality from cancer, and that high blood Zn/Cu ratio is associated with low mortality from other causes. In contrast, serum TBARS levels do not appear to be a biomarker for the risk of death from cancer. J Epidemiol, 2002 ; 12:14-21
Interferon (IFN) therapy is used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease, but is so expensive that it creates controversy as to whether or not it is effective use of limited health care resources. In order to make this judgement possible, it must be necessary to build a comprehensive disease model of HCV infection from social perspective. A Markov chain model of the natural history of HCV infection in male patients was developed. Parameters on the clinical phase of the disease were adopted from published reports, but those of the non-clinical phase were estimated from the data on blood donation and mortality rates from the disease. Then, adding in the modeling of treatment outcome from IFN therapy and cost-benefit analysis, IFN therapy was economically evaluated.Using this model, it was shown that (1) IFN therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) would be economically beneficial at least in the Japanese situation, (2) the complete response rate to therapy would be the most sensitive factor affecting outcome, and (3) the younger the person cured by IFN therapy, the greater the benefit seen.These results demonstrate that IFN therapy would be beneficial in the case of the CHC patients (male). J Epidemiol, 2002 ; 12: 22-32
The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of parental obesity and lifestyle factors on obesity in preschool children. The subjects consisted of 8941 children aged 3 years, born in 1989. Anthropometric measurements and questionnaire surveys were conducted between 1992 and 1994. Subjects of body mass index (BMI; (weight (kg)) / (height (m))2) more than the ageand sex-specific centiles linked to adult overweight were defined as obese subjects. Parental obesity was defined as BMI of 25 kg/m2 or more. Logistic regression analysis was performed to clarify the strengths of parental and lifestyle factors on childhood obesity, adjusted for possible confounding factors. Odds ratios (ORs) of paternal and maternal obesity for childhood obesity were 1.70(1.43-2.02) and 2.56(2.07-3.17), respectively. There was a dose-response relationship between short sleeping hours and obesity. Compared to subjects taking 11 hours sleep or more, the adjusted OR was 1.20(0.97-1.49) for those taking 10 to 11 hours sleep, 1.34(1.05-1.72) for those taking 9 to 10 hours sleep, and 1.57(0.90-2.75) for those taking less than 9 hours sleep. Eating and exercising habits were not significantly associated with obesity. These results indicate that parental obesity and short sleeping hours are possible risk factors for obesity in preschool children. J Epidemiol, 2002 ; 12:33-39
To investigate effects of low body mass index (BMI) and smoking on all-cause mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese, we conducted a community-based prospective study. A mail survey was conducted in 1987-1990 in four towns, western Japan. A cohort of 7, 301 Japanese men and 8, 825 Japanese women was followed up from the date of the mail survey to 1995 in three of the towns and 1998 in the fourth town. We investigated the effect of BMI and smoking on all-cause mortality by using Cox's proportional hazards model. The relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality was a reverse J-shape with minimal mortality in 24≤BMl<26 in men and a Ushape with minimal mortality in 22≤BMl<24 in women, after adjusting for age and smoking. The lowest BMI category (BMI<20) had the highest all-cause mortality in men and also in women. Taking only never-smokers, the highest risk for all-cause mortality was observed in the lowest BMI category for men and for women. This does not seem to be explained by smoking and preexisting diseases. More attention should be paid to persons with low BMI. J Epidemiol, 2002 ; 12: 40-44
Objective: To examine reproducibility of assessed intake of foods and nutrients according to a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) in Japanese female dietitians. Subjects and Methods: An SQFFQ was self-administered to 106 (21 male and 85 female) Japanese dietitians in Aichi prefecture in autumn 1996 and the same questionnaire was repeated in autumn 1997. Reproducibility was evaluated in terms of consumption of 15 foods and energy and 30 macroand micro-nutrients based on the SQFFQ from 84 Japanese female dietitians. Results: For intake of foods, Pearson's correlation coefficients (CCs) with log-transformation and energy adjustment (minimum median maximum) ranged from 0.35 (beverages) - 0.61 - 0.71 (dairy products). ANOVA intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with log-transformation and energy adjustment ranged from 0.49 (beverages) - 0.74 - 0.82 (dairy products). Spearman's rank CCs with energy adjustment ranged from 0.43 (confectionery) - 0.57 - 0.76 (dairy products). Weighted kappa statistics with energy adjustment ranged from 0.34 (confectionery) - 0.49 - 0.71 (dairy products). For consumption of nutrients, Pearson's CCs with log-transformation and energy adjustment ranged from 0.23 (zinc) - 0.55 - 0.74 (insoluble dietary fiber). ANOVA ICCs with log- transformation and energy adjustment ranged from 0.37 (zinc) - 0.70 - 0.84 (insoluble dietary fiber). Spearman's rank CCs with energy adjustment ranged from 0.25 (zinc) - 0.56 - 0.74 (magnesium). Weighted kappa statistics with energy adjustment ranged from 0.25 (zinc) - 0.50 - 0.68 (insoluble dietary fiber). Conclusions: Substantially high reproducibility of consumption of foods and nutrients was attained from an SQFFQ self-administered to Japanese female dietitians. J Epidemiol, 2002 ; 12: 45-53
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