BACKGROUND: The validity of sleep quality and quantity indices as reported by schoolchildren has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between subjective sleep habits estimation and objective measurement data in schoolchildren. METHODS: The study consisted of 42 healthy junior high school children aged 13-14. Sleep log information was gathered over 7 consecutive days, using a sleep-monitoring device (Actiwatch®) and a questionnaire which covered the following aspects for sleep quality and quantity: bed time, sleep latency, sleep start, sleep end, wake up and assumed sleep length. The means of the sleep indices for 5 weekdays were used for analysis. Pearson’s correlation coefficients and paired t-tests were used to evaluate the correlation and difference between subjective and objective sleep parameters. RESULTS: The correlation coefficient between subjective and objective records was 0.49 (p<0.001) for sleep latency, 0.99 (p<0.001) for sleep start time, 0.99 (p<0.001) for sleep end time, and 0.97 (p<0.001) for assumed sleep length. The difference between subjective and objective records was 7.67 min (95% confidence interval [Cl]: 4.64-10.71) for sleep latency, and 0:02 min (95% Cl: −0:01-0:05) for sleep start time, 0:02 min (95% Cl: 0:01-0:03) for sleep end time, and 8.19 min (95% Cl: 4.93-11.45) for assumed sleep length. CONCLUSIONS: Although children tended to overestimate sleeping hours, the correlation between subjective and objective sleep indices except sleep latency was quite high. Thus, children’s sleep questionnaire can be applied to surveys for sleep habits screening.
BACKGROUND: The relationships between birth weight and serum lipid concentrations in premenopausal Japanese women were not well identified and also diet and serum hormone status in these women would be considered. METHODS: A total of 59 premenopausal Japanese women completed a self-administered questionnaire including basic demographic information, disease histories, and menstrual and reproductive histories. They were asked to obtain information on birth weight recorded in mother-and-baby notebook issued by municipality from their mother. Diet was assessed by daily diet records from day 2 through day 10 of the menstrual cycle. Blood sample was collected on day 11 of the cycle to measure serum lipid and hormone concentrations (total and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterols, triglyceride, estrone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin). RESULTS: Birth weight was significantly correlated with HDL cholesterol (r=0.32, p=0.03), but not with total cholesterol and triglyceride after controlling for age. Neither estrogen nor sex hormone-binding globulin was significantly correlated with serum lipid concentrations after controlling for age and the number of days prior to the next menses. The correlation between birth weight and HDL cholesterol was not affected after additional adjustment for serum estrogen and intakes of protein, calcium, and iron. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that intrauterine growth may be associated with lipid profile.
BACKGROUND: The epidemiologic features of those who requested to undergo the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test at public health centers in Japan are still ambiguous, although as a group, they are probably at a high risk to be infected. METHODS: Between April 2001 and March 2002, 14, 900 persons visited 131 public health centers that cooperated with this study in relation to the HIV antibody tests. A questionnaire was given to 8,972 persons who agreed to participate in the survey and 5,079 (56.6%) returned the form. Excluding those filled out by persons whose true intent in undergoing the test was the diagnosis of hepatitis C, 4,102 questionnaires were analyzed, individual characteristics examined, and first time visitors and repeaters were compared to assess their behavior and the reasons for of undergoing the test. RESULTS: There were 2,515 (61.3%) males and 1, 587 (38.7%) females. The largest age group was composed of 25 to 29 year-olds. Repeaters accounted for 27.2% of all the males and 21.3% of all the females. Their main reason for undergoing the test was anxiety about having contracted an HIV infection through sexual contact with a person of the opposite sex. The proportion of those having sexual contact with males was significantly higher among male repeaters (14.1%) than first timers (8.0%). Among females, the proportion of those who had experience of sexual contact with many and unspecified males was significantly higher for repeaters (39.6%) than first timers (27.3%). CONCLUSION: It was evident from this study that repeaters exist among those who seek to be examined for possible contraction of HIV: they are characterized by risk-taking behavior in contracting an HIV infection through sexual contact.
BACKGROUND: The National Death Index is a useful source to establish the death of an individual and to determine the cause of death. We identified deaths in atomic bomb survivors in the United States who were lost to follow-up through the National Death Index, and examined the completeness of mortality ascertainment in atomic bomb survivors in the US through the National Death Index. METHODS: Since 1977, biennial medical examinations of atomic bomb survivors in the US have been conducted. The 1,073 atomic bomb survivors in the US included 764 individuals who had medical examinations at least once in sixteen years from 1977 through 1993 and 309 individuals who reported atomic bomb survivorship to medical examination project themselves. Of the 1,073 survivors living in the US, 471 people who participated in the ninth health examinations of atomic bomb survivors living in the US in 1993 were removed, and two people among the remaining 602 individuals had no information about their birth dates and Social Security numbers. An investigation of those deceased between 1979 and 1993 was conducted among 600 of the atomic bomb survivors in the US. Death certificates for atomic bomb survivors in the US were requested from the National Death Index. A comparison was made between the information on the death certificates acquired through the National Death Index and the data ascertained from the medical examination project conducted from 1979 through 1993. RESULTS: Forty-nine death certificates were obtained using the National Death Index. By sex, the dominant cause of death in females was malignant neoplasm, accounting for 53%. In males, it was circulatory disease, accounting for 37%. The National Death Index and the medical examination project determined that 57 deaths had occurred between 1979 and 1993. The sensitivity and specificity of the National Death Index is 86% and 97% respectively. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the National Death Index is useful to follow up mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the US.
BACKGROUND: Many working-age people have poor health habits. The aim of this study was to investigate their views of old age and death and the relationship of those views to their health habits. METHODS: A structured interview about views on old age and death, self-rated health, satisfaction with life (life satisfaction) and health habits was conducted on a random sample of 1,200 men and women aged 30-59 years in the southern part of Gifu Prefecture, Japan. The response rate was 78%. RESULTS: Less than half as many respondents expected to live past 80 years than expected to live past 70 years. A greater percentage of men than women had no plan for old age, while the percentage of women who expected to live with friends and family was higher than that for men. For men, fewer symptoms, life satisfaction, valuing health, and anxiety about health status during solitary old age, and for women, occupation, fewer symptoms, life satisfaction, valuing health, expecting social participation during old age, expecting to live with her spouse during old age and considering one's own death were positively associated with health habits. Experience of presence at a deathbed was not related to health habits. CONCLUSIONS: Results of our survey suggest that men have a poor outlook toward old age and death and suggest the possibility that helping men prepare for an inevitable death may help them live fuller lives.