Background: About 50% of lung cancer deaths in Taiwan are not related to cigarette smoking. Environmental exposure may play a role in lung cancer risk. Taiwanese households frequently burn mosquito coil at home to repel mosquitoes. The aim of this hospital-based case-control study was to determine whether exposure to mosquito coil smoke is a risk for lung cancer. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to 147 primary lung cancer patients and 400 potential controls to ascertain demographic data, occupation, lifestyle data, indoor environmental exposures (including habits of cigarette smoking, cooking methods, incense burning at home, and exposure to mosquito coil smoke ), as well as family history of cancer and detailed medical history. Results: Mosquito coil smoke exposure was more frequent in lung cancer patients than controls (38.1% vs.17.8%; p<0.01). Risk of lung cancer was significantly higher in frequent burners of mosquito coils (more than 3 times [days] per week) than nonburners (adjusted odds ratio = 3.78; 95% confidence interval: 1.55-6.90). Those who seldom burned mosquito coils (less than 3 times per week) also had a significantly higher risk of lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio = 2.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.60-4.50). Conclusion: Exposure to mosquito coil smoke may be a risk factor for development of lung cancer.
Background: In Japan, the temporary leave and drop-out rate of university or junior college students has been increasing in recent years, and many cases have been attributed to psychological problems. To establish a mental health support system for entering students, we conducted a questionnaire and follow-up survey, and explored predictors of temporary leaves and drop-outs among junior college women. Methods: Our sample consisted of 485 first-year female students attending a junior college in Osaka, Japan. Between 1998 and 2002, the following factors were assessed: lifestyle, college life, subjective well-being measured by the General Well-Being Schedule (GWBS), self-esteem, and emotional support network. A follow-up survey was conducted during 1 year. Results: Thirty-seven women, who had taken temporary leaves or had dropped out during the first year, showed unfavorable responses to lifestyle, college life and/or subjective well-being compared with other students. No differences in self-esteem and emotional support network were found between the two groups. A multiple regression analysis showed that non-existence of interesting club activity, smoking, and low level of life satisfaction and emotional stability measured by the GWBS were predictors of temporary leaves and drop-outs. Conclusion: It may be possible to determine which students are at risk for taking temporary leaves or dropping out based on their psychological state and lifestyle at the time of enrollment in college. More support is needed to continue the students at school who are at high risk for taking temporary leaves or dropping out.
Background: In Japan, the current standard waist circumference cutoff value for persons with multiple cardiovascular risk factors remains controversial. In this study we aimed to analyze the health-check examination data from a large Japanese population and propose a revised waist circumference cutoff value. Methods: Subjects of this study were 12,725 adults who underwent a health-check by thorough medical examination between April 2006 and March 2007. Medical examinations included measurement of waist circumference, fasting blood triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, glucose concentrations, blood pressure and collection of demographic characteristics. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was utilized to find appropriate waist circumference cutoff values in relation to multiple cardiovascular risk factors with two or more of the following: dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia or low HDL cholesterol), hypertension, and hyperglycemia defined by the Japanese criteria of metabolic syndrome. Results: The average age of the subjects was 50.7 years (standard deviation [SD]: 8.8) for men and 49.7 years (SD: 8.6) for women. ROC curve analysis showed maximum sensitivity plus specificity at a waist circumference of 87 cm in men (0.66 and 0.62, respectively) and 83 cm in women (0.73 and 0.70). When analyzed by ten-year age groups, the ROC curves for younger age groups were shifted up and to the left compared to older age groups, but associations between cutoff values and age were not clear. Conclusion: In Japan, the appropriate cutoff value of waist circumference for persons with multiple cardiovascular risk factors is 87cm for men and 83 cm for women.
About the paper by Sabanayagam C et al. published in the September 2007 issue of the Journal, the authors requested that some errors in the Tables 2 (p164) and 3 (p165) of the original paper should be corrected.