Background: Associations between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease risk factors remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary patterns derived from factor analysis and the levels of blood pressure and serum lipids in a Japanese population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 6886 (in the analysis on blood pressure) and 7641 (in the analysis on serum lipids) Japanese subjects aged 40-69 years. Dietary patterns were identified from a food frequency questionnaire by factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and blood pressure and serum lipids were examined after taking potential confounders into account. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: vegetable, meat, and Western. In men, the meat pattern was associated with higher total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. The Western pattern was associated with higher total and LDL cholesterol. In women, the vegetable pattern was associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and higher HDL cholesterol. The meat pattern was associated with higher total and HDL cholesterol. The Western pattern was associated with higher total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, and the least intake pattern of Western diet was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Conclusions: Dietary patterns of a Japanese population were related to cardiovascular disease risk factors, especially in women.
Background: The Total Health Index (THI), a self-administered questionnaire developed in Japan, is used for symptom assessment and stress management of employees and others; however, it has not been reported whether it can predict mortality risk. Methods: The THI, with 12 primary and 5 secondary scales, was applied to a cohort consisting of middle-aged residents in Japan. This study, called the Komo-Ise cohort study, was started in 1993. The scale scores were related to 481 deaths from all causes among 10,816 residents over 93 months. The statistics were tested by the Cox hazard model and adjusted for three background variables (sex, age, and district where the subject resided). Results: Five of the scales [depression and aggression (primary scales), and psychosomatics, neurotics, and schizophrenics (secondary scales)] indicated significant hazard ratios for mortality. The lowest quintile group of the aggression scale score had the largest hazard ratio of 2.58, compared with the middle quintile group (95% confidence interval: 1.88-3.52). The psychosomatics, neurotic scales and depression scales also had a minimum hazard ratio in the middle quintile group. One of the secondary scales, T1, which represents a somatoform disorder, had a significant linear relationship with the mortality risk, although its proportionality with the cumulative mortality rates was not satisfactory. Conclusions: Five scales of the THI were significantly related to mortality risk in the Komo-Ise cohort, which could be used for score evaluation and in the personal health advice system of the THI.
Background: Evidence is lacking regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and breast cancer in Japanese women. We examined the association between breast cancer incidence and active and passive smoking in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk. Methods: Our study comprised 34,401 women aged 40-79 years who had not been diagnosed previously with breast cancer and who provided information on smoking status at baseline (1988-1990). The subjects were followed from enrollment until December 31, 2001. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between breast cancer incidence and tobacco smoke. Results: During 271,412 person-years of follow-up, we identified 208 incident cases of breast cancer. Active smoking did not increase the risk of breast cancer, with a HR for current smokers of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.32-1.38). Furthermore, an increased risk of breast cancer was not observed in current smokers who smoked a greater number of cigarettes each day. Overall, passive smoking at home or in public spaces was also not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among nonsmokers. Women who reported passive smoking during childhood had a statistically insignificant increase in risk (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.84-1.85), compared with those who had not been exposed during this time. Conclusion: Smoking may not be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in this cohort of Japanese women.
Background: Maternal psychological distress has been widely studied, but epidemiologic data based on follow-up studies of maternal psychological distress remain insufficient in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among child-rearing women in Japan at two time-points after childbirth. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was delivered on two occasions to 2,657 women who had given birth in 2004: first when their infants were 3-4 months old and then again when their infants were 9-10 months old. The questionnaire included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; Japanese version) to estimate the level of maternal psychological distress. Results: The total percentage of women with anxiety symptoms as assessed by a HADS score of 8+ was 26.2 % at 3-4 months of age, and 26.1 % at 9-10 months. Among the women without anxiety symptoms at 3-4 months, 11.6 % showed anxiety symptoms at 9-10 months. The total percentage of depressive symptoms was 19.0 % at 3-4 months, and 24.0 % at 9-10 months. Among the women without depressive symptoms at 3-4 months, 14.0 % showed depressive symptoms at 9-10 months. Conclusion: Anxiety symptoms in mothers appeared to persist from 3-4 months to 9-10 months after childbirth, while depressive symptoms tended to be more common at 9-10 months after childbirth. Nevertheless, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was higher than that of depressive symptoms.