Background: Adiponectin is associated with many cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, a relation between adiponectin and subsequent coronary heart disease has been hypothesized. However, the results of prospective studies have been conflicting. Methods: In this nested case-control study, blood samples were collected from 5243 of 12 490 community residents enrolled in the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study. The samples were taken between 1992 and 1995 and stored until 2007, at which point the plasma adiponectin level was measured. Results: During an average of 9.4 years of follow-up, 38 patients with myocardial infarction and 89 controls matched for age, sex, and community were identified. Plasma adiponectin concentration did not significantly differ between cases and controls (geometric mean 7.6 [interquartile range, 5.0–12.2] versus 7.4 [5.4–11.0] mg/L, respectively, P = 0.57). The odds of myocardial infarction in the lowest tertile of adiponectin concentration was not significantly different from that in the highest tertile, after adjustment for age and sex (OR 1.33; 95% CI, 0.50–3.55) or after further adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors (OR 1.68; 95% CI, 0.45–6.25). Similarly, there was no significant difference in odds of myocardial infarction between the lowest and highest quartiles of adiponectin concentration. Conclusion: The results do not support an association between hypoadiponectinemia and myocardial infarction.
Background: There have been few population-based studies of the seroprevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) in Japan. Methods: We enrolled a total of 1244 adults, aged 18–59 years, from a population-based cohort in southern Japan, and tested their serum samples using an ELISA kit containing HSV type-specific antigens to glycoproteins G1 and G2. Results: The seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 was 55.4% and 7.4% in men and 63.3% and 9.3% in women, respectively. Overall, 4 percent of the participants (2.3% of men and 5.0% of women) were co-infected with HSV-1 and HSV-2. The seroprevalences of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 increased with age in both sexes, and were always higher among women than among men in each age bracket. The prevalence of HSV-2 infection among HSV-1 infected individuals was lower than that among uninfected individuals, both in men and women. Male current drinkers, and male and female current smokers, were more likely to be infected with HSV-1 and HSV-2, as compared to never drinkers and never smokers, respectively. Conclusion: It is hoped that the estimates produced in this study will help in understanding the burden of these infections in Japan.
Background: A protective effect of fruits and vegetables against colorectal cancer has been supported by many epidemiologic studies. This suggests that the carotenoids frequently found in these foods play a role in the prevention of this common cancer. To examine associations between the intake of individual and total carotenoids and the risk of colorectal cancer, we analyzed prospective data from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Methods: This analysis includes 85 898 men and 105 106 women who completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1993–1996. The participants were African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites aged 45–75 years at cohort entry. After an average follow-up of 8.2 years, 1292 and 1086 incident cases of colorectal cancer were identified in men and women, respectively. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks of colorectal cancer. Results: No significant associations were found between intake of individual and total carotenoids and colorectal cancer risk either in men or women, except for β-cryptoxanthin, which showed a mild protective effect in men. When the associations were investigated separately for colon and rectal cancer, lycopene intake was related to an increased risk of rectal cancer in men. A decreased risk was seen for total β-carotene in male current smokers, but the test for interaction with smoking status was not significant. No association was observed in each ethnic-sex group. Conclusion: Overall, our findings do not support a significant association between carotenoid intake and colorectal cancer, although some associations were seen in subgroup analyses.
Background: To examine the association between oral health and general well-being, we are currently conducting a nationwide cohort study comprising members of the Japan Dental Association (JDA). Herein, we describe the study design and the profile of the participants at baseline. Methods: From 2001 through 2006, the participants completed a baseline questionnaire that surveyed factors related to lifestyle, general health, and oral health. Morbidity and mortality have been monitored by using information from fraternal insurance programs operated by prefectural dental associations. All respondents provided written, informed consent for participation and the use of their insurance data. Results: A total of 21 272 JDA members participated in the baseline survey (response rate, 36.2%). Their mean age ± SD was 52.3 ± 12.3 years; 8.0% were women. Among the respondents, 30.2% of men and 10.7% of women were current smokers; 73.5% of men and 44.8% of women were current drinkers. The cohort scored higher on oral health indices than did the general Japanese population: dentists were more likely to brush their teeth ≥3 times/day, to have ≥20 teeth, to have fewer lost teeth, to be free from periodontal diseases, and to have higher General Oral Health Assessment Index scores. There was, however, considerable inter-individual variation in scores on the indices. Conclusions: More than one-third of JDA members participated in the study. Their oral average health status was better than that of the general population. Nevertheless, it will be possible to compare morbidity and mortality between those with better and worse scores on oral health indices.
Background: The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been accompanied by a severe epidemic of tuberculosis (TB), although the prevalence of coinfection is largely unknown, especially in developing countries, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of TB coinfection among HIV-seropositive Nigerians. Methods: The case files of HIV/AIDS patients attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Nigeria from January to December 2006 were reviewed. Results: A total of 1320 HIV/AIDS patients had complete records and were reviewed, among which 138 (10.5%) were coinfected with TB (95% CI, 8.9% to 12.2%). Pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 103 (74.6%) patients, among whom only 18 (17.5%) were sputum-positive. Fifty (36.2%) coinfected patients had some type of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB); 15 had both pulmonary TB and EPTB. Among the 35 patients with EPTB only, 20 (57.1%) had abdominal TB, 5 (14.3%) had TB adenitis, 5 (14.3%) had spinal TB, 3 (8.6%) were being monitored for tuberculous meningitis, and 1 (2.9%) each had renal TB and tuberculous adrenalitis. The highest prevalence of TB, 13.7% (n = 28), was seen among patients aged 41–50 years. TB coinfection was significantly associated with marital status, WHO clinical stage, and CD4 count. Marital status (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.28–3.59; P = 0.04), WHO clinical stage at presentation (4.81; 1.42–8.34; P = 0.001), and baseline CD4 count (2.71; 1.51–6.21; P = 0.02) remained significant predictors after adjustment for confounding. Conclusions: The moderately high prevalence of TB among HIV-seropositive patients underscores the urgent need for strategies that lead to rapid identification and treatment of coinfection with active or latent TB.
Background: The effect of the interaction between long-term mental stress and eating habits on weight gain has not been confirmed in humans. Methods: A population of 1080 healthy Japanese male local government employees without lifestyle-related diseases were studied. Height and weight were measured and perception of mental stress and the frequency of eating to satiety, drinking, smoking, and exercise were surveyed by means of a questionnaire in both 1997 and 2002. Exposure patterns during this 5-year period were classified as low or high. Information on daily food and energy intake was collected in 2002. The effect of the interaction between stress and the frequency of eating to satiety on change in BMI (ΔBMI) during this 5-year period was examined by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for age, BMI at baseline, and other lifestyle habits. The association between satiation eating and ΔBMI was compared between participants with high and low levels of stress. Results: Stress and satiation eating were not significantly mutually correlated. Two-way ANCOVA showed a significant interaction (F = 4.90, P = 0.03) between mental stress and satiation eating. Among participants with a high level of stress, BMI gain was significantly larger in those who ate to satiety than in those who ate moderately, when ΔBMI was unadjusted or adjusted for covariates (adjusted mean [SE]: 0.34 ± 0.06 kg/m2 vs. 0.12 ± 0.07 kg/m2, P = 0.002). Among participants with a low level of stress no such difference was observed. These results were unchanged after further adjustment for energy intake in 2002. Conclusion: In this population, eating pattern interacted with long-term mental stress to produce a larger body mass gain in satiation eaters than in moderate eaters among participants with a high level of stress, independent of energy intake or other lifestyle habits.
Background: Risk charts that depict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) for each combination of risk factors in individuals are convenient and beneficial tools for primary prevention of ischemic heart disease. Although risk charts have been developed using data from North American and European cardiovascular cohort studies, there is no such chart derived from cardiovascular incidence data obtained from the Japanese population. Methods and Results: We calculated and constructed risk charts that estimate the 10-year absolute risk of MI by using data from the Jichi Medical School (JMS) Cohort Study—a prospective cohort study which followed 12 490 participants in 12 Japanese rural communities for an average of 10.9 years. We identified 92 cases of a clinically-certified MI event. Color-coded risk charts were created by calculating the absolute risk associated with the following conventional cardiovascular risk factors: age, sex, smoking status, diabetes status, systolic blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol. Conclusions: In health education and clinical practice, particularly in rural communities, these charts should prove useful in understanding the risks of MI, without the need for cumbersome calculations. In addition, they can be expected to provide benefits by improving existing risk factors in individuals.
Background: Risk charts are used to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases; however, most have been developed in Western countries. In Japan, currently available risk charts are based on mortality data. Using data on cardiovascular disease incidence from the JMS Cohort Study, we developed charts that illustrated the risk of stroke. Methods and Results: The JMS Cohort Study is a community-based cohort study of cardiovascular disease. Baseline data were obtained between 1992 and 1995. In the present analysis, the participants were 12 276 subjects without a history of stroke; the follow-up period was 10.7 years. Color-coded risk charts were created by using Cox’s proportional hazards models to calculate 10-year absolute risks associated with sex, age, smoking status, diabetes status, and systolic blood pressure. The risks of stroke and cerebral infarction rose as age and systolic blood pressure increased. Although the risk of cerebral hemorrhage were generally lower than that of cerebral infarction, the patterns of association with risk factors were similar. Conclusion: These risk charts should prove useful for clinicians and other health professionals who are required to estimate an individual’s risk for stroke.