During the period 1986-1991 in Okinawa, Japan, serologic markers of hepatitis B virus infection (hepatitis B surface antigen : HBsAg, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen : anti-HBc), hepatitis C virus infection (antibody to HCV : anti-HCV) and human T lymphotropic virus type (antibody to HTLV-I: anti-HTLV-I) were investigated in institutionalized mentally retarded patients. In 1986, HBsAg was detected in 34(9.1%), anti-HBc in 179(48.0%), anti-HCV in 5(1.3%)and anti-HTLV-I in 34(9.1%) of 373 patients. HBsAg and anti-HBc were more prevalent in patients than in the 400 controls (3.8%, p<0.05, 25.5%, p<0.001, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of either anti-HCV or anti-HTLV-I between patients and controls (1.0%, 9.0%, respectively). Eight (12.5%) of 64 seronegative patients not given hepatitis B vaccine were infected with hepatitis B virus (one became an HBsAg carrier)over five years of observation, whereas none were infected with hepatitis C virus or HTLV-I.Hepatitis B virus was the most transmissible of the three viruses among the mentally retarded patients in these institutions.
A method is proposed for estimating the number of incident cases of cancer and complete-ness of cancer registration using data from a population-based cancer registry. It is based on two assumptions : 1) submission of supplementary report does not depend on the duration of ill state ; and 2) registration reports and death certificates are independent sources of informa-tion. The method proposed in the present study has two advantages : 1) the number of incident cases can be estimated, even when completeness of registration varies over a period of time; 2) over-estimation of incidence by a registry can be evaluated. The use of this method was illustrated by data from the Fukuoka Cancer Registry, and completeness of registration was estimated as 69.4% for males and 66.2% for females. Furthermore, validity of the two assumptions was evaluated, and result from the evaluation suggested that for most sites the assumptions were valid and the estimated completeness not biased. But for some sites, such as liver, lung, and pancreas, the second assumption would be less valid and the complete-ness underestimated.
Quantitative and qualitative difference of the effects of life style factors ranging within the usual daily life on high density lipoprotein (HDL) were estimated in the 5th grade schoolchildren (n=155) and their parents by a cross sectional study. Strength of daily physical activity was measured directly and drinking and smoking habits, inquired by a questionnaire. By multiple linear regression analysis in the fathers, change in HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) estimated by increasing the level of strength of physical activity, body mass index, daily amount of alcohol and cigarettes from the mean of bottom tertile to that of top one was 0.08[95% confidence interval: -0.03-0.19], -0.20[-0.30oline;-0.09], 0.31[0.19oline;0.42], -0.16[-0.27oline;-0.05]mmol/liter, respectively, and that of apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-1), 1.1 [-2.2&amp;amp;amp;amp;oline;4.4], -4.4[-7.8oline;-1.1], 9.0[5.6oline;12.4], -2.4[-5.8oline;0.9]mu;mol/liter, respectively. The ratio of HDL-C to Apo A-1 increased by high activity, weight loss, alcohol, and abstaining from smoking.Although change in HDL-C and Apo A-1 due to alcohol was greatest, estimated HDL-C change accompanying a unit of estimated concentration change of Apo A-1 was smallest. These results suggested variability of HDL change in terms of its subfractional constitution, and changes induced by alcohol seemed less desirable than that induced by the other factors.Regression was borderline or insignificant in the children and mothers, who did not smoke or drink
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 antibody (anti-HTLV1) was examined in 403 patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) in Fukuoka, Japan, where HTLV-1 is endemic. The anti-HTLV1 positive rate was significantly greater in patients with a history of blood transfusion than in those without it (19.3% vs. 7.3%, p<0.05). However, the anti-HTLV1 positive rate in the latter group of HD patients was still 3.1 times higher than that in healthy blood donors from Fukuoka prefecture after adjustment for age and sex. In addition, positive rate of anti-HTLV1 increased with the duration of HD regardless of a history of blood transfusion. These results suggest that blood transfusion was a major route of HTLV1 infection in HD patients but that HD treatment itself might also increase the risk of HTLV1 infection.
At present, intravenous drug users (IVDUs) comprise the largest risk group to develop acquired immunodefeciency syndrome (AIDS) in China, and their sex partners seem the second largest risk group. It is necessary to understand long-term trends in the spread of human immunodeficience virus (HIV) among IVDUs and their sex partners and the trends about AIDS cases development for disease prevention and control. The compartment model was used to project the number of HIV infectious individuals and the number of AIDS patients for the next 10 years. The model assumes that transmission is concentrated among IVDUs and their sex partners according to the current situation. The model estimes that by the year 2002, the number of HIV positives will reach 2, 891, AIDS cumulative cases to 1, 124, out of which 776 will have died of the disease ; if we include oral drug users who also have experienced intravenous drug use, HIV positives will be 3, 304, AIDS cases 1, 285, death 887; if unsurveyed IVDUs are included, HIV positives can be estimated to be 4, 129, AIDS cases 1, 606, death 1, 109; with increasing knowledge about AIDS, if persons at risk stop their risk behaviour are doubled, HIV positives will be 2, 496, AIDS cases 1, 024, death 714. these conclusions indicate that prevention efforts among male IVDUs and their female sex partners must be appropriately directed.
Cross sectional comparison of food intake patterns and smoking and drinking habits with 1968 and 1987/88 in a 20-year follow-up study was carried out, in the Oki Islands, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. A total of 1, 140 males and 1, 694 females were randomly selected from the participants of the first survey (in 1968). The proportion of previous hypertension was signifi-cantly higher in the 397 inhabitants who died from stroke during the follow-up period than in 397 survivors matched for age and sex (p<0.01). Among males, the proportions of those who smoked and drank daily were significantly higher in the stroke death group than in the survivor group, in contrast, their daily consumption of eggs and milk were significantly lower (p<0.05).There were no differences in the daily intake of miso soup and pickles between the two groups in either sex. Previous hypertension and drinking were significant and independent risk factors for stroke in male. It is important for primary prevention of stroke to improve the 'salt-rich' diet of those who used added salt either while cooking or at the table, because they have unhealthy life style, smoking and drinking daily and not taking eggs, milk and fruits daily.
We examined the correlation between the prefectural variation of standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for stomach cancer and the consumption of nutrients and food groups using dietary data available for 27 prefectures in Japan. Because data for specific food groups were not available in some prefectures, the number (n) of prefectures analyzed for correlation ranged from 15-27. A three-fold interprefectural variation in SMR for stomach cancer was observed. There was a significant positive correlation between the consumption of salted/dried fishes and SMR(n=15, r=0.75, p<0.01), and vitamin A intake showed a negative correlation (n=26, r= -0.61, p<0.01). Salt consumption did not show a material correlation with SMR (n=26, r=0.26, p=0.20). In the partial correlation analysis (n=14), fruits and yellow-green vegetables showed the inverse associations (r=-0.43, p=0.19, r=-0.75, p<0.01, respectively), and pickles and salted/dried fishes showed positive associations (r=0.53, p=0.09, r=0.67, p=0.02, respective-ly) after adjusting for the remaining three variables. The findings suggest that salty foods and vitamin A may be important determinants of the prefectural variation of stomach cancer mortality in Japan.
Lifestyles, blood pressure and serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were surveyed on medical students aged 21-25 years (217 males and 72 females) of Fukuoka University between 1987 and 1989. Smoking and alcohol drinking were as prevalent among male students as among adult men in general population while smoking rate of female students was much lower than that of women in general population. In the analysis of 217 male students, obesity was most strongly related to raised blood pressure and atherogenic lipid profile. Sport activity was moderately associated with favorable cardiovascular risk profiles. There was a positive relation between smoking and TC/HDL ratio, but alcohol intake was not materially associated with this index of atherogenicity although it was significantly associated with elevated levels of HDL-C. Men reporting parental hypertension not only had higher systolic blood pressure but also showed lower levels of HDL-C. The present study indicates that lifestyles of young adults substantially influence blood pressure and serum lipids, and emphasizes the importance of health education in early life for the prevention of cardiovas-cular diseases.
After determining the normal ranges of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, correlates of HDL-cholesterol were analysed in a sample of 1, 283 males and 2, 123 females aged 40 years and older in an agricultural area of Shibata City, Niigata Prefecture. The distribution of serum HDL-cholesterol was nearly a log-scale normal distribution curve. The median and the lower and upper normal limits were calculated theoretically and the median values were :40-49 age group, 51.9 mg/100 ml for males and 52.5 mg/100 ml for females ; 50-59 age group, 52.5 and 51.4; 60-69 age group, 51.4 and 49.4; over 70 age group, 49.4 and 47.9. There was almost no difference in HDL-cholesterol levels between both sexes. This was explained as possibly due to alcohol intake raising HDL-cholesterol levels in males. There was a positive association of HDL-cholesterol levels with reported amount of alcohol intake in males. Inverse relationships were found between serum HDL-cholesterol levels and obesity in any age group for both sexes. An inverse correlation between percent energy contribution by carbohydrate and HDL-cholesterol was observed in males. Caloric intake was positively correlated to HDL-cholesterol in females.