Background: The relations of birth weight and maternal body mass index (BMI) to overweight remain unresolved. We prospectively examined the relations of birth weight with various anthropometric measures at age 3 to 6 years, the effect of maternal BMI, and the patterns of these relations in an analysis using 9 birth weight categories. Methods: The subjects were 210 172 singleton infants born alive with a gestational age ≥28 weeks between October 1993 and December 1996; the subjects were followed up in 2000. Birth weight, maternal height and weight, and other relevant information were measured or collected prospectively. Overweight and underweight were defined by using National Center for Health Statistics/World Health Organization reference data. Logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risks. Analyses stratified by quartile of maternal BMI were performed to examine the effects of maternal BMI on the associations of birth weight with overweight and underweight. Results: Birth weight was linearly associated with height, weight, and BMI at age 3–6 years. Adjustment for maternal BMI did not alter this association. Birth weight was positively associated with overweight and negatively associated with underweight. The relation curves for both overweight and underweight resembled half of a flat parabolic curve. The associations for overweight and underweight were slightly stronger for the highest and lowest quartiles of maternal BMI, respectively. Conclusions: Higher birth weight is associated with an increased risk for childhood overweight, and lower birth weight with an increased risk for underweight. The associations between birth weight and early childhood anthropometric growth measures could not explained by maternal BMI.
Background: Although regular nationwide surveys of Kawasaki disease (KD) are conducted in Japan, there is no system for detecting the real-time epidemic status of this disease. Methods: A web-based surveillance system for KD was developed. After consideration of the number of patients reported by prefecture to the 19th nationwide survey, 355 pediatric departments were asked to participate in the surveillance, and 225 agreed. Since January 2008, pediatricians in these 225 hospitals have reported KD patient data immediately after diagnosis. The daily numbers of patients are available to the public via the internet at http://www.kawasaki-disease.net/kawasakidata/. The validity of the data in 2008 was evaluated using the Japanese 20th nationwide survey of KD as the gold standard. Results: A total of 3376 patients were reported to the web-based surveillance system from the 1st week through 52nd week of 2008. The number of patients reported to the nationwide survey during the same period was 11 680: a total of 4950 patients from the hospitals participating in the web-based surveillance and 6730 from other hospitals. The epidemic curves were similar, and the correlation coefficient between the web-based surveillance and the total numbers in the nationwide survey was 0.806 (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The web-based surveillance system for Kawasaki disease in Japan demonstrated good validity.
Background: There have been few reports on longitudinal change in activities of daily living (ADL), functional capacity, and life satisfaction in patients with subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy (SMON). Methods: A total of 1309 SMON patients 40 to 79 years of age underwent a medical examination conducted by the SMON Research Committee during the period from 1993 through 1995 (baseline) in Japan; 666 (51%) were followed-up after 12 years and were thus eligible for analysis. We calculated scores for ADL, functional capacity, and life satisfaction at baseline, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 years after baseline, using data from medical examinations conducted in 1993 through 2007. The Barthel Index, the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, and the patient’s response to the question “Are you satisfied with life?” were used to assess ADL, functional capacity, and life satisfaction, respectively. Results: As compared with baseline, the mean scores for ADL, functional capacity, and life satisfaction were all significantly lower after 12 years in men and women, with the exception of life satisfaction in women. The change in scores for functional capacity from baseline to year 12 was significantly associated with change in life satisfaction; however, the changes in ADL and age at baseline were not. Conclusions: We observed decreases in ADL, functional capacity, and life satisfaction among SMON patients. Our results suggest that a decrease in life satisfaction can be prevented by maintaining or improving functional capacity.
Background: In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning caused by ingestion of arsenic-contaminated dry milk occurred in western Japan. We assessed the excess mortality among Japanese who were poisoned during this episode as infants. Methods: We identified and enrolled 6104 survivors (mean age at enrollment, 27.4 years) who had ingested contaminated milk when they were age 2 years or younger; they were followed until 2006 (mean duration of follow-up, 24.3 years). Death certificates of subjects who died between 1982 and 2006 were examined to calculate cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) using the mortality rate among Osaka residents as the standard. Results: There was no significant excess overall mortality (SMR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–1.2). However, significant excess mortality in both sexes was observed from diseases of the nervous system (3.7, 1.9–6.2). Excess mortality from all causes of death decreased to unity beyond 10 years after study enrollment. The 408 men who were unemployed at the time of enrollment in the study had a significantly elevated risk of death from diseases of the nervous system (25.3, 10.8–58.8), respiratory diseases (8.6, 3.1–16.8), circulatory diseases (3.2, 1.6–5.2), and external causes (2.6, 1.4–4.1). Conclusions: As compared with the general population, survivors of arsenic poisoning during infancy had a significantly higher mortality risk from diseases of the nervous system.
Background: Differences in the characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents to a survey can be a cause of selection bias. The aim of this study was to determine the sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of respondents to a field-based accelerometry survey. Methods: A cross-sectional mail survey was sent to 4000 adults (50% male; age 20 to 69 years) who were randomly selected from the registries of residential addresses of 4 cities in Japan. There were 1508 respondents (responding subsample) to the initial questionnaire. A total of 786 participants from the responding subsample also agreed to wear an accelerometer for 7 days (accelerometer subsample). Age, sex, and city of residence were compared between the accelerometer subsample and all 3214 nonrespondents, including those who did not respond to the initial questionnaire. In addition, multiple logistic regression analyses were used to compare the sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of the accelerometer subsample and the 722 respondents who participated in the questionnaire survey but not the accelerometry (questionnaire-only subsample). Results: As compared with all nonrespondents, the accelerometer subsample included significantly more women, middle-aged and older adults, and residents of specific cities. Multiple logistic regression analyses comparing the accelerometer and questionnaire-only subsamples revealed that participation in the accelerometry survey was greater among nonsmokers (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.79) and persons who reported a habit of leisure walking (1.56, 1.21–2.01). Conclusions: Sex, age, city of residence, smoking status, and leisure walking were associated with participation in accelerometry. This response pattern reveals potential selection bias in mail-based accelerometry studies.
Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) causes systemic vasculitis and coronary aneurysms. It frequently results in electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities of short duration. Cardiac sequelae persist beyond the acute stage in a few patients. There are many areas to be investigated concerning the effects on the vascular system of patients suffering from KD and its sequelae. Methods: The cumulative incidences of KD and its cardiac sequelae were calculated in birth-year cohorts, using data obtained from KD nationwide surveys. The results were compared with the prevalence of ECG abnormalities detected in cardiac examinations conducted at primary and secondary schools for each birth-year cohort. This comparison allowed observation of relationships in these trends for each birth-year cohort. Results: The cumulative incidence of late-stage cardiac sequelae gradually declined. However, there were increases in the cumulative incidence of ECG abnormalities and in the cumulative incidences of KD and acute-stage cardiac disorders related to KD. Conclusions: The results suggest that even among children without late cardiac sequelae, KD can have a persistent effect on the cardiovascular system. It thus appears necessary to extend clinical observation of children with a history of KD, even if they developed only acute-stage cardiac lesions.
Background: To investigate changes over time in risk factors for the development of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) disabilities in older adults with arthritis. Methods: The data were obtained from the Longitudinal Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan (1989–1999). The major analytic cohort comprised 977 older adults (458 men and 519 women) with arthritis and without ADL limitation at study baseline. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) model was used to analyze all temporally correlated errors, population-averaged estimates, and longitudinal relationships. Results: Overall, the cumulative incidence of ADL disability in the analytic cohort was 17.4% during an observation period of 11 years. With respect to baseline risk, ADL disability was associated with older age, presence of comorbid chronic conditions, and poor self-rated health. However, the findings changed after accounting for the time-varying nature of risk factors and the temporal sequence of possible cause-and-effect relationships. In addition to the baseline predictors, a high score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, lack of regular exercise, and becoming widowed were associated with an increased risk of ADL disability and a decreased chance of recovery. Conclusions: An understanding of the time-varying nature of risk factors for the disabling process is essential for the development of effective interventions that aim to maintain functional ability and prevent limitations among older adults with arthritis.
Background: Few studies have investigated ambulance utilization in people aged 85 years or older, ie, the oldest old. Methods: We conducted a 1-year population-based observational study of patients transported by ambulance to emergency departments in Tokyo, Japan, which has a population of about 12 million. Demographic data, symptoms/events associated with ambulance transport, and the proportion of hospital admissions were recorded. Transport rates by age and sex were calculated using data for the background population and ambulance transports, and the 10 most frequent symptoms/events requiring transport were compared between the oldest old and those aged 65 to 84 years. Results: Of the 642 764 patients who were transported to hospitals by ambulances, 59 570 (9%) were aged ≥85 years; 64% were women. The annual ambulance transport rate for this population was 250 per 1000/year and was significantly greater than the rate (90 per 1000/year) for those aged 65 to 84 years. The highest rate was for men aged 85 to 99 years (292 per 1000/year). Among the oldest old, the most frequent reason for ambulance transport was fall (38.5 per 1000/year), and the symptom most likely to result in hospital admission was dyspnea. Conclusions: The ambulance transport rate for the oldest old was high, particularly among men aged ≥95 years. To reduce the need for ambulance transport among the oldest old, preventive care is needed to reduce falls and acute exacerbations of cardiac and respiratory disorders.
Background: Anti-smoking advertisements are an effective population-based smoking reduction strategy. The Quitline telephone service provides a first point of contact for adults considering quitting. Because of data complexity, the relationship between anti-smoking advertising placement, intensity, and time trends in total call volume is poorly understood. In this study we use a recently developed semi-varying coefficient model to elucidate this relationship. Methods: Semi-varying coefficient models comprise parametric and nonparametric components. The model is fitted to the daily number of calls to Quitline in Victoria, Australia to estimate a nonparametric long-term trend and parametric terms for day-of-the-week effects and to clarify the relationship with target audience rating points (TARPs) for the Quit and nicotine replacement advertising campaigns. Results: The number of calls to Quitline increased with the TARP value of both the Quit and other smoking cessation advertisement; the TARP values associated with the Quit program were almost twice as effective. The varying coefficient term was statistically significant for peak periods with little or no advertising. Conclusions: Semi-varying coefficient models are useful for modeling public health data when there is little or no information on other factors related to the at-risk population. These models are well suited to modeling call volume to Quitline, because the varying coefficient allowed the underlying time trend to depend on fixed covariates that also vary with time, thereby explaining more of the variation in the call model.
Background: Despite the rapid increase in the rate of multiple births due to the growth of reproductive medicine, there have been no epidemiologic studies of the secular trends in the impact of multiple births on the rates of low-birth-weight and preterm deliveries in Japan. Methods: Japanese vital statistics for multiple live births were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and reanalyzed. With singletons as the reference group, an analysis was performed of secular trends in relative risk and population attributable risk percent of low-birth-weight (<2500 grams), very-low-birth-weight (<1500 grams), and extremely-low-birth-weight (<1000 grams) deliveries, using 1975–2008 vital statistics, and of preterm deliveries (ie, before 37, 32, and 28 weeks), using 1979–2008 vital statistics. Results: The rate of multiple births doubled during the past 2 decades, and about 2% of all neonates are now multiples. The population attributable risk percent tended to increase during the same period for all variables, and was approximately 20% in 2008. Conclusions: The public health impact of the rapid increase in multiple births remains high in Japan.
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