Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in Japan. To reduce the threat of CVD, it is important to identify its major risk factors. The population attributable fraction (PAF) is calculated from the prevalence and relative risk of risk factors and can be used to estimate the burden of these factors with respect to CVD. We analyzed the findings from several prospective studies to determine the PAFs of CVD. Methods: PAF was calculated as pd × (multiadjusted relative risk − 1)/multiadjusted relative risk, where pd is the proportion of patients exposed to that risk factor category, according to data from the Ohsaki Cohort Study, EPOCH-JAPAN, NIPPON DATA80, Miyagi Cohort Study, CARDIA Study, and ARIC Study. Results: Nonoptimal blood pressure explained 47% and 26% of CVD mortality in middle-aged and elderly Japanese, respectively. Cigarette smoking explained 34% of all-cause mortality in middle-aged men. The combination of hypertension and cigarette smoking explained 57% and 44% of CVD mortality in younger men and women, respectively. Furthermore, the presence of at least 1 nonoptimal risk factor explained most CVD deaths and all-cause deaths. Conclusions: Established CVD risk factors, especially high blood pressure and cigarette smoking, explained a large proportion of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality. Prevention, early detection, and treatment of these conventional risk factors are required to reduce mortality risk.
Background: Evidence for an association between vitamin D status and breast cancer is now more convincing, but is uncertain in subtropical areas like Taiwan. This hospital-based case-control study examined the relationship of breast cancer with vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure. Methods: A total of 200 incident breast cancer cases in a Taipei hospital were matched with 200 controls by date of interview and menopausal status. Information on risk factors for breast cancer was collected in face-to-face interviews and assessed with reference to vitamin D intake (foods and nutrients) and sunlight exposure. Vitamin D intake was divided into quartiles, and threshold effect was evaluated by comparing Q2–Q4 with Q1. Results: After controlling for age, education, parity, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, menopausal status, and daily sunlight exposure, the risk of breast cancer in participants with a dietary vitamin D intake greater than 5 µg per day was significantly lower (odds ratio [OR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24–0.97) than that of participants with an intake less than 2 µg per day. In analysis stratified by menopausal status and BMI, both dietary vitamin D and total vitamin D intakes were associated with a protective effect among premenopausal women. There was a significant linear trend for breast cancer risk and dietary vitamin D intake in premenopausal women (P = 0.02). In participants with a BMI lower than 24 kg/m2 (ie, normal weight), dietary vitamin D intake was inversely related to breast cancer risk (P for trend = 0.002), and a threshold effect was apparent (Q2–Q4 vs Q1: OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.23–0.90). Conclusions: Vitamin D had a protective effect against breast cancer in premenopausal women of normal weight in subtropical Taiwan, especially an intake greater than 5 µg per day.
Background: Only a few population-based cohort studies have investigated the impact of atrial fibrillation (AF) on stroke in Japan. Methods: A total of 10 929 participants (4147 men and 6782 women) were included in this population-based prospective cohort study. Baseline data, including electrocardiograms (ECGs) to ascertain AF status, were obtained from April 1992 through July 1995 in 12 areas in Japan. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the association of AF with stroke. Results: A total of 54 participants had AF (0.49%). The mean follow-up period was 10.7 years, during which 405 strokes were identified; 12 of these occurred in participants with AF. The crude incidence of stroke in participants with and without AF was 14.9 and 4.5 per 1000 person-years in men, respectively, and 39.3 and 2.7 per 1000 person-years in women. After adjusting for geographical area, sex, age, smoking status, drinking status, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of AF in all participants and in male and female participants were 4.11 (2.28–7.41), 2.12 (0.77–5.84), and 10.6 (5.01–22.4), respectively. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of stroke caused by AF was 2.2%; the PAFs were 1.0% and 3.6% in men and women, respectively. Conclusions: The present Japanese population-based prospective cohort study showed that AF is a major risk factor for stroke, especially in women.
Background: Inverse associations between height and serum lipid levels in pubertal children have been reported. To develop criteria for normal serum lipid levels stratified by height in pubertal children, we examined height-specific cholesterol levels, using data from a population-based school screening. Methods: Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were investigated in 10 151 children (98.9% of the target population) aged 10 and 14 years who attended public schools in Iwata City from 2002 through 2007. Results: The 95th percentiles of TC in the lowest and highest quintiles of height were 221 and 219 mg/dL, respectively, in 10-year-old boys, 215 and 203 mg/dL in 14-year-old boys, 220 and 204 mg/dL in 10-year-old girls, and 226 and 214 mg/dL in 14-year-old girls. The fifth percentiles of HDL-C in the lowest and highest quintiles of height were 45 and 43 mg/dL in 10-year-old boys, 43 and 40 mg/dL in 14-year-old boys, 46 and 42 mg/dL in 10-year-old girls, and 47 and 44 mg/dL in 14-year-old girls. Conclusions: This study provided height-specific levels of serum lipids in 10-year-old and 14-year-old children. Height should be considered when evaluating cholesterol levels in pubertal children.
Background: Immigration can affect the evolution of TB as an AIDS-defining disease (AIDS–TB). Methods: The Barcelona AIDS register for 1994–2005 was analyzed, and the global characteristics of AIDS–TB and AIDS–non-TB cases were compared. The Mantel-Haenszel test was used in the trend analysis, and logistic regression was used in the multivariate analysis. Results: Of the 3600 cases studied, 1130 had both AIDS and TB. A declining trend in AIDS–TB rates was observed in both sexes among both immigrants and native residents. The percentage of AIDS–TB was significantly higher among immigrants (P = 0.02). The number of cases among immigrants remained constant over the period of study, but decreased among native residents. The sociodemographic and immunological characteristics associated with TB were male sex, age younger than 36 years, inner city residence, a record of incarceration, greater than 200 CD4+ T-cells/mm3, injecting drug use, heterosexual sex, and immigration from Latin America, the Caribbean, or sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusions: The incidence of TB as an AIDS-defining disease decreased in Barcelona during a recent 10-year period in both native and immigrant populations. However, immigrants remain a high-risk group for AIDS–TB and should be targeted for surveillance and control of both diseases.
Background: No study has attempted to use the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to validate a physical activity questionnaire administered to a Japanese population. The development and refinement of such questionnaires require that physical activity components related to physical activity level be examined. Methods: Among 226 Japanese men and women 20 to 83 years of age, total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed using the Japan Arteriosclerosis Longitudinal Study Physical Activity Questionnaire (JALSPAQ), and the results were compared with TEE measured by the DLW method as a gold standard. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured using the Douglas Bag method. Results: The median TEE by DLW and physical activity level (PAL: TEE/RMR) were 11.21 MJ/day and 1.88, respectively, for men, and 8.42 MJ/day and 1.83 for women. JALSPAQ slightly underestimated TEE: the differences in mean and standard error were −1.15 ± 1.92 MJ/day. JALSPAQ and DLW TEE values were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation = 0.742, P < 0.001; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.648, P < 0.001), and the 95% limit of agreement was −4.99 to 2.69 MJ. Underestimation of TEE by JALSPAQ was greater in active subjects than in less active subjects. Moderate and vigorous physical activity and physical activity during work (ie, occupational tasks and housework) were strongly related to physical activity level. However, the physical activity components that differentiated sedentary from moderately active subjects were not clear. Conclusions: Physical activity level values on JALSPAQ and DLW were weakly correlated. In addition, estimation of TEE in active subjects should be improved, and the use of a questionnaire to differentiate activity in sedentary and moderately active subjects must be reassessed.
Background: Dietary pattern may influence the risks of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome through its effects on inflammation. We evaluated the association between dietary pattern and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in a Japanese population. Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis, we used baseline data from 3905 men and 5640 women (age 40–69 years) who participated in a population-based cohort study between November 2005 and December 2007. Participants with possible inflammation-related diseases, current analgesic use, high hs-CRP levels (≥3000 ng/mL) or extreme dietary energy intake were excluded. We used 46 items from a validated short food frequency questionnaire and examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis. Results: We identified 5 dietary patterns: healthy (high in vegetables and fruit), Western (high in meat and fried foods), seafood (high in shellfish, squid, fish, etc.), bread (high in bread and low in rice), and dessert (high in confections and fruit). After adjustment for age, alcohol use, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index, hs-CRP levels in men were inversely associated with the healthy, bread, and dessert patterns (P-trend: 0.01, 0.06, and <0.01, respectively) and positively associated with the seafood pattern (P-trend = 0.02). In women, hs-CRP levels were inversely associated with the healthy pattern (P-trend = 0.06) and positively associated with the Western pattern (P-trend = 0.06). Conclusions: The healthy dietary pattern may be associated with suppressed inflammation in Japanese men and women, independently of body mass index and other factors. The sex-specific associations of hs-CRP with other dietary patterns (eg, the seafood pattern) require further study.
Background: Evidence for a link between long-term exposure to air pollution and lung cancer is limited to Western populations. In this prospective cohort study, we examined this association in a Japanese population. Methods: The study comprised 63 520 participants living in 6 areas in 3 Japanese prefectures who were enrolled between 1983 and 1985. Exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using data from monitoring stations located in or nearby each area. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratios associated with the average concentrations of these air pollutants. Results: The 10-year average concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 before recruitment (1974–1983) were 16.8 to 41.9 µg/m3, 2.4 to 19.0 ppb, and 1.2 to 33.7 ppb, respectively (inter-area range). During an average follow-up of 8.7 years, there were 6687 deaths, including 518 deaths from lung cancer. The hazard ratios for lung cancer mortality associated with a 10-unit increase in PM2.5 (µg/m3), SO2 (ppb), and NO2 (ppb) were 1.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.12–1.37), 1.26 (1.07–1.48), and 1.17 (1.10–1.26), respectively, after adjustment for tobacco smoking and other confounding factors. In addition, a significant increase in risk was observed for male smokers and female never smokers. Respiratory diseases, particularly pneumonia, were also significantly associated with all the air pollutants. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to air pollution is associated with lung cancer and respiratory diseases in Japan.
Background: Japan is located in an area prone to natural disasters, and major earthquakes have occurred recently in rural areas where the proportion of elderly adults is high. Although elderly persons are vulnerable members of communities at a time of disaster, the prevalence of mental disorders among this population has yet to be reported in Japan. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of mental disorders and suicidal thoughts among community-dwelling elderly persons 3 years after an earthquake and to identify risk factors associated with their quality of life (QOL). Methods: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 496 community-dwelling persons aged 65 years or older in areas of Japan where 2 major earthquakes had occurred during a 3-year period. The main outcome was diagnosis of a mental disorder or suicidality. Results: During the 3-year period after the earthquake, 1.6% of men and 5.5% of women had received a diagnosis of major depression. There were no cases of posttraumatic stress disorder. Women were more likely than men to report suicidality (7.8% vs 3.8%, P = 0.075). Conclusions: The prevalence of mental disorders was lower than that reported in previous studies. Despite the low prevalence of mental disorders, the percentage of community-dwelling elderly persons with subclinical mental health symptoms was high. The results indicate that appropriate public health and medical interventions are warranted after a natural disaster.
Background: The longevity of Japanese is thought to be associated with psychosocial factors such as sense of coherence, social support, and social capital. However, the actual factors responsible and the extent of their contribution to individual health status are not known. Methods: The Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) 2003 Cohort Study is a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling, activities of daily living-independent people aged 65 or older living in 6 municipalities in Chita peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Information on psychosocial factors and other individual- and community-level factors was collected in the second half of 2003 using a baseline questionnaire. Vital status and physical and cognitive decline have been followed using data derived from long-term care insurance certification. Geographical information on the study participants was also obtained. Results: A total of 13 310 (6508 men; 6802 women) study participants were registered in the study. For an interim report, we followed the cohort for 48 months, yielding 24 753 person-years of observation among men and 26 456 person-years among women. Conclusions: The AGES 2003 Cohort Study provides useful evidence for research in social epidemiology, gerontology, and health services.
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