Background: Although several reports have described a possible association between DNA repair genes and pancreatic cancer (PC) in smokers, this association has not been fully evaluated in an Asian population. We assessed the impact of genetic polymorphisms in the base excision repair (BER) pathway on PC risk among Japanese. Methods: This case-control study compared the frequency of 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BER genes, namely rs1052133 in OGG1, rs1799782 and rs25487 in XRCC1, rs1130409 in APE1, and rs1136410 in PARP1. SNPs were investigated using the TaqMan assay in 185 PC cases and 1465 controls. Associations of PC risk with genetic polymorphisms and gene–environment interaction were examined with an unconditional logistic regression model. Exposure to risk factors was assessed from the results of a self-administered questionnaire. We also performed haplotype-based analysis. Results: We observed that the minor allele of rs25487 in XRCC1 was significantly associated with PC risk in the per-allele model (odds ratio = 1.29, CI = 1.01–1.65; trend P = 0.043). Haplotype analysis of XRCC1 also showed a statistically significant association with PC risk. No statistically significant interaction between XRCC1 polymorphisms and smoking status was seen. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that XRCC1 polymorphisms affect PC risk in Japanese.
Background: We investigated the relationship between dietary iron intake and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a population-based sample of Japanese adults. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 58 615 healthy Japanese (23 083 men and 35 532 women), aged between 40 and 79 years, who had no history of stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), or cancer at baseline. Dietary iron intake was assessed at baseline by a validated food frequency questionnaire administered between 1988 and 1990 as part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study. Results: We documented 2690 (1343 men and 1347 women) deaths from CVD: 1227 (607 men and 620 women) deaths from total stroke, 651 from ischemic stroke (355 men and 296 women), 459 (196 men and 263 women) from hemorrhagic stroke, and 557 (311 men and 246 women) from CHD. Dietary intake of total iron was positively associated with mortality from total and ischemic stroke and total CVD in men. The multivariable hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest quintile of total iron intake was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.02–2.00; P for trend = 0.009) for total stroke and 1.27 (1.01–1.58; 0.023) for total CVD in men. Dietary total iron intake was not associated with mortality from other endpoints in men, and was not associated with any endpoints in women. Conclusions: Dietary intake of total iron was positively associated with mortality from stroke and total CVD in Japanese men.
Background: Physical activity decreases deaths from cardiovascular disease and other causes; however, it is unclear whether physical activity is associated with cancer incidence and death in Asian populations. Methods: Data from 59 636 Koreans aged 30 to 93 years were collected using a questionnaire and medical examination at the Severance Hospital Health Promotion Center between 1994 and 2004. Study participants were followed for a mean duration of 10.3 years. Results: In the exercising group, the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed a lower risk of cancer death (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.62–0.85) in men but not in women. Those who exercised, as compared with those who did not, had lower risks of all-cause death (men: HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.60–0.76; women: HR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.53–0.79) and noncancer death (men: 0.63, 0.53–0.75; women: 0.52, 0.39–0.69). Physical activity was inversely associated with risk of noncancer death among men and women. Conclusions: Physical activity was associated with lower risks of cancer death and noncancer death.
Background: We assessed the association between activities of daily living (ADL) and mortality among nursing home residents in Japan. Methods: This 1-year prospective cohort study investigated 8902 elderly adults in 140 nursing homes. Baseline measurements included age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), ADL, and dementia level. ADL levels were obtained by caregivers, using the Barthel Index (BI), after which total BI scores were calculated (higher scores indicate less dependence). Information on dates of discharge and mortality was also obtained to calculate person-years. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). Results: Mean age was 84.3 years, and mean total BI score was 38.5. The HRs of mortality adjusted for sex, age, BMI, and type of nursing home were 7.6 (95% CI: 3.3–17.8) for those with a BI score of 0 (totally dependent), 3.9 (1.7–9.0) for those with a score of 1 to 10, 3.5 (1.4–8.7) for those with a score of 11 to 40, 2.7 (1.4–5.1) for those with a score of 41 to 70, and 1.3 (0.7–2.4) for those with a score of 71 to 99 (P for trend <0.001), as compared with those with a score of 100. Multivariate analysis revealed that BI, sex, age, and BMI were significantly associated with mortality rate. Conclusions: There was a clear inverse association between ADL level and mortality. In conjunction with other risk factors, ADL level might effectively predict short-term mortality in institutionalized elderly adults.
Background: Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is associated with serious health and economic outcomes. However, few studies have estimated the incidence and health outcomes of PPU using a nationally representative sample in Asia. We estimated age- and sex-specific incidence and short-term mortality from PPU among Koreans and investigated the risk factors for mortality associated with PPU development. Methods: A retrospective population-based study was conducted from 2006 through 2007 using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. A diagnostic algorithm was derived and validated to identify PPU patients, and PPU incidence rates and 30-day mortality rates were determined. Results: From 2006 through 2007, the PPU incidence rate per 100 000 population was 4.4; incidence among men (7.53) was approximately 6 times that among women (1.24). Incidence significantly increased with advanced age, especially among women older than 50 years. Among 4258 PPU patients, 135 (3.15%) died within 30 days of the PPU event. The 30-day mortality rate increased with advanced age and reached almost 20% for patients older than 80 years. The 30-day mortality rate was 10% for women and 2% for men. Older age, being female, and higher comorbidity were independently associated with 30-day mortality rate among PPU patients in Korea. Conclusions: Special attention should be paid to elderly women with high comorbidity who develop PPU.
Background: The incidence of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) varies among countries, with Asia reporting a higher incidence in comparison with Western countries. We investigated the epidemiologic features of INS and attempted to identify factors that predispose individuals to develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods: Claims data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance program from 1996 to 2008 were used to investigate the epidemiologic features and clinical variables of INS (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code, 581) in children younger than 18 years. Results: We enrolled 4083 children (male-female ratio, 1.91:1). During the 13 years of observation, annual incidence decreased from 9.91 to 3.36 per 100 000 children. Annual number of hospital admissions progressively decreased during the first 3 years after diagnosis. At 3.14 ± 2.77 years after INS onset, ESRD had developed in 145 (3.6%) children. Independent predictors of ESRD included older age at onset, acute renal failure (ARF), hypertensive encephalopathy, and a histologic subtype with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Conclusions: Pediatric INS in Taiwan was more frequent in boys. Unlike India, the current incidence of pediatric INS in Taiwan is very similar to that reported in Western studies. Older age at disease onset, ARF, hypertensive encephalopathy, and FSGS on biopsy are important predictors of poor renal outcome.
Background: Although the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARG2) Pro12Ala gene variant is associated with diabetes mellitus, the associations and interactions of this polymorphism and known clinical risk factors with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) remain poorly understood. We investigated if carrying the Ala allele was inversely associated with HbA1c level and examined possible interactions. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis used data collected from 1281 men and 1356 women aged 40 to 69 years who completed the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. PPARG2 polymorphism was determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based Invader assay. Multiple linear regression and ANCOVA were used to control for confounding variables (age, body mass index [BMI], energy intake, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and family history of diabetes) and examine possible interactions. Results: After adjustment, the Ala allele was significantly inversely associated with HbA1c in women but not in men. Older age, BMI, and family history of diabetes were associated with higher HbA1c in both sexes. When stratified by PPARG2 genotype, these associations were observed in subjects with the Pro12Pro genotype but not in Ala allele carriers. A significant interaction of genotype and BMI on HbA1c was observed in women. Older age, BMI, and family history of diabetes were significantly associated with high-normal HbA1c (≥5.7% NGSP), whereas PPARG2 polymorphism was not. Conclusions: Although PPARG2 Pro12Ala polymorphism might attenuate associations between known risk factors and HbA1c level, it had a small effect on high-normal HbA1c, as compared with clinical risk factors, in the general population.
Background: The impact of the sex of a deceased child on maternal suicide has not been studied. We examined whether the death of a child, especially a son, increased the risk of suicide among parous Taiwanese women. Methods: This matched case-control study was done within a cohort of 1 292 462 Taiwanese women who experienced a first and singleton childbirth between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987 and were followed up until 31 December 2008. From the cohort, 2701 suicide cases were identified and 2701 controls were randomly selected. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of suicide associated with the death of a child. Results: The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for suicide among mothers whose son had died were 2.60 (95% CI = 1.18–5.73), 2.58 (1.28–5.20), and 4.20 (0.79–22.45) for death of a son aged younger than 1 year, 1 to 17 years, and 18 years or older. The ORs for suicide associated with the death of a daughter were not statistically significant: the respective adjusted ORs were 1.86 (0.82–4.62), 1.38 (0.54–3.49), and 2.48 (0.40–15.51). Conclusions: The death of a child, especially a son, increased the risk of maternal suicide, which supports the notion that preference for a son is firmly rooted in traditional Chinese culture.
Background: The hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism is associated with lung cancer risk, but there are limited data regarding an association between the APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and lung cancer. Biological evidence shows that the hOGG1-Cys allele results in less DNA repair activity; however, this is not associated with p53 mutation in lung cancer. Therefore, we investigated whether an interaction between hOGG1 and APE1 is associated with the frequency of p53 mutation in lung cancer. Methods: We studied 217 Taiwanese adults with primary lung cancer. DNA polymorphisms of hOGG1 and APE1 were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Mutations in p53 exons 5–8 were detected by direct sequencing. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the risk of p53 mutation associated with polymorphisms of hOGG1 and APE1 in lung cancer. Results: As expected, no association between hOGG1 polymorphism and p53 mutation was observed in this population. However, a higher risk of p53 mutation was found in participants with the APE1 Asp/Asp genotype than in those with the APE1-Glu allele (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.19–3.87; P = 0.011). The risk of p53 mutation was also higher in participants with APE1 Asp/Asp plus hOGG1-Cys than in those with APE1-Glu plus hOGG1 Ser/Ser (OR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.33–10.40; P = 0.012). Conclusions: These results suggest that the APE1 Asp/Asp genotype and the combination of the APE1 Asp/Asp and hOGG1-Cys variants are associated with increased risk of p53 mutation in non–small cell lung cancer.
Background: Rotating savings and credit associations (ROSCAs) involve group financial self-help activities. These voluntary financial cooperative associations—mujin in Japanese—are found in some rural areas of Japan. Cross-sectional evidence suggests that active participation in mujin correlates with rich social capital and better functional capacities among older adults. However, the effect of mujin on subsequent health outcomes is unknown. Methods: In 2003, we conducted a baseline interview survey of 583 functionally independent adults randomly selected from Yamanashi Prefecture residents aged 65 years or older. They were followed up until 2011. We used proportional hazards models, and factor analysis of 8 mujin-related questions identified 2 components: the “intensity and attitude” and “financing” aspects of mujin. Results: The hazard ratios (HRs) for incident functional disability—identified by using the public long-term care insurance database—per 1-SD increase in factor scores were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.68–0.99) for the intensity and attitude score and 1.21 (1.07–1.38) for financing score. Adjustments for age, sex, marital status, household composition, physical health, education, income, and other factor scores only slightly attenuated these HRs. The results for mortality models were very similar to those for incident functional disability. Conclusions: ROSCA-type activities in Japan could have beneficial effects on the health of older adults if used primarily for the purpose of friendship. Mujin for aggressively financial purposes might be somewhat harmful, as such activities might reflect the “dark side” of social capital, ie, overly demanding expectations of group conformity.
Background: Investigation of frailty among elderly adults and development of prevention strategies to address this are critical in delaying progression of functional decline and thus extending healthy life expectancy. However, there has been no Japanese epidemiologic cohort study of frailty. The Hatoyama Cohort Study was launched in 2010 to identify factors that predict functional decline and to establish strategies to prevent frailty among community-dwelling elderly Japanese. This report describes the study design and the profile of the participants at baseline. Methods: The Hatoyama Cohort Study is a prospective study of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older living in the town of Hatoyama in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Comprehensive information, including socioeconomic status, physiological indicators, physical, psychological, and cognitive function, social capital, neighborhood environment, and frailty, was collected in a baseline survey using face-to-face interviews in September 2010. Survival time, long-term care insurance certification, and medical and long-term care costs after the baseline survey will be followed. In addition, a follow-up survey will be conducted in the same manner as the baseline survey every 2 years. Results: A total of 742 people participated in the baseline survey (mean age: 71.9 ± 5.2 years, men: 57.7%, living alone: 7.7%). Almost all participants were independent in their daily lives, and approximately 10% were categorized as frail on the kaigo-yobo (care prevention) checklist. Conclusions: The Hatoyama Cohort Study is expected to contribute to the development of strategies that prevent frailty in later life and extend healthy life expectancy in Japan’s rapidly aging society.