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Volume 25 , Issue 4
Showing 1-11 articles out of 11 articles from the selected issue
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Review Article
  • Yuan-Qing Fu, Ju-Sheng Zheng, Bo Yang, Duo Li
    Volume 25 (2015) Issue 4 Pages 261-274
    Released: April 05, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: March 14, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Epidemiological studies have suggested inconsistent associations between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We performed a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies investigating both dietary intake and circulating n-3 PUFAs and PCa risk. PubMed and EMBASE prior to February 2014 were searched, and 16 publications were eligible. Blood concentration of docosahexaenoic acid, but not alpha-linolenic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid, showed marginal positive association with PCa risk (relative risk for 1% increase in blood docosahexaenoic acid concentration: 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.05; I2 = 26%; P = 0.05 for linear trend), while dietary docosahexaenoic acid intake showed a non-linear positive association with PCa risk (P < 0.01). Dietary alpha-linolenic acid was inversely associated with PCa risk (relative risk for 0.5 g/day increase in alpha-linolenic acid intake: 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.98–1.00; I2 = 0%; P = 0.04 for linear trend), which was dominated by a single study. Subgroup analyses indicated that blood eicosapentaenoic acid concentration and blood docosahexaenoic acid concentration were positively associated with aggressive PCa risk and nonaggressive PCa risk, respectively. Among studies with nested case-control study designs, a 0.2% increase in blood docosapentaenoic acid concentration was associated with a 3% reduced risk of PCa (relative risk 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.94–1.00; I2 = 44%; P = 0.05 for linear trend). In conclusion, different individual n-3 PUFA exposures may exhibit different or even opposite associations with PCa risk, and more prospective studies, especially those examining dietary n-3 PUFAs and PCa risk stratified by severity of cancer, are needed to confirm the results.
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Original Article
  • Kithsiri Bandara Jayasekara, Dhammika Menike Dissanayake, Ramiah Sivak ...
    Volume 25 (2015) Issue 4 Pages 275-280
    Released: April 05, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: The aim of the study was to identify the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out by analyzing health statistics, and three cohort studies were conducted (n = 15 630, 3996, and 2809) to analyze the demographic information, age-specific prevalence, etiology, and stage of presentation. We screened 7604 individuals for chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology.
    Results: The results showed that the male:female ratio was 2.4:1, the mean age of patients was 54.7 ± 8 years, 92% of the patients were farmers, and 93% consumed water from shallow dug wells. Familial occurrence was common (36%). The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in different age groups was 3% in those aged 30–40 years; 7% in those aged 41–50 years, 20% in those aged 51–60 years, and 29% in those older than 60 years. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology was diagnosed in 70.2% of patients, while 15.7% and 9.6% were due to hypertension and diabetic mellitus, respectively. The majority of patients were stage 4 (40%) at first presentation, while 31.8% were stage 3 and 24.5% were stage 5. Stage 1 and 2 presentation accounted for only 3.4%.
    Conclusions: Low prevalence of CKDU was noticed (1.5%) among those who consumed water from natural springs. Prevalence was highest among males, rice farming communities, and those presenting at later disease stages.
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  • Jae Jeong Yang, Sang-Ah Lee, Ji-Yeob Choi, Minkyo Song, Sohee Han, Hyu ...
    Volume 25 (2015) Issue 4 Pages 281-288
    Released: April 05, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: March 07, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: To investigate whether preeclampsia is independently associated with risk of future metabolic syndrome and whether any such primary associations are modified by different ages at first pregnancy.
    Methods: Based on the Health Examinees Study, a cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Data of women (n = 49 780) who had experienced at least 1 pregnancy during their lifetime and had never been diagnosed with any metabolic disorder before their pregnancy were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated after adjusting for age, lifestyle characteristics, and reproductive factors. A stratified analysis was also conducted to estimate the extent of the primary association between preeclampsia and future metabolic syndrome by age at first pregnancy.
    Results: Women with a history of preeclampsia had significantly increased odds of developing metabolic syndrome (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12–1.35), central obesity (adjusted OR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.25–1.47), elevated blood pressure (adjusted OR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.41–1.67), or elevated fasting glucose (adjusted OR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03–1.25) in later life. In the stratified analysis, women who first became pregnant at ages >35 years and had preeclampsia were found to be at significantly increased likelihood of metabolic syndrome later in life (adjusted OR 4.38; 95% CI, 1.62–11.9).
    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that preeclampsia increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in later life, and late age at first pregnancy can further exacerbate this risk.
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  • Takahiro Nakamura, Masahiro Hashizume, Kayo Ueda, Tatsuhiko Kubo, Atsu ...
    Volume 25 (2015) Issue 4 Pages 289-296
    Released: April 05, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: March 21, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Asian dust events are caused by dust storms that originate in the deserts of China and Mongolia and drift across East Asia. We hypothesized that the dust events would increase incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests by triggering acute events or exacerbating chronic diseases.
    Methods: We analyzed the Utstein-Style data collected in 2005 to 2008 from seven prefectures covering almost the entire length of Japan to investigate the effect of Asian dust events on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Asian dust events were defined by the measurement of light detection and ranging. A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was performed. The strength of the association between Asian dust events and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests was shown by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in two conditional logistic models. A pooled estimate was obtained from area-specific results by random-effect meta-analysis.
    Results: The total number of cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was 59 273, of which 35 460 were in men and 23 813 were in women. The total number of event days during the study period was smallest in Miyagi and Niigata and largest in Shimane and Nagasaki. There was no significant relationship between Asian dust events and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests by area in either of the models. In the pooled analysis, the highest odds ratios were observed at lag day 1 in both model 1 (OR 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97–1.19) and model 2 (OR 1.08; 95% CI, 0.97–1.20). However, these results were not statistically significant.
    Conclusions: We found no evidence of an association between Asian dust events and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.
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  • Yusuke Kabeya, Kiyoe Kato, Masuomi Tomita, Takeshi Katsuki, Yoichi Oik ...
    Volume 25 (2015) Issue 4 Pages 297-302
    Released: April 05, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: February 28, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: The association between diabetes and paranasal sinus disease has not been thoroughly investigated.
    Methods: We cross-sectionally investigated the association between diabetes and the presence of paranasal sinus disease, which was confirmed by a head MRI scan in 1350 adults who underwent a health screening program focusing on brain diseases and metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression, which was adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, hypertension, smoking status, alcohol intake, and white blood cell count, was performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of having paranasal sinus disease among adults with diabetes in relation to those without. The dose-response relationship between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the presence of paranasal sinus disease was also investigated.
    Results: Of the 1350 participants (mean age, 61.6 ± 10.0 years; 71.6% men), 220 diabetes cases were identified. Paranasal sinus disease was diagnosed in 151 adults. The adjusted OR of having paranasal sinus disease was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–2.71) in those with diabetes. The odds of having paranasal sinus disease increased with HbA1c levels. Compared to those with HbA1c of ≤5.4%, those with HbA1c of 5.5%–6.4%, 6.5%–7.9%, and ≥8.0% were more likely to have paranasal sinus disease, with adjusted ORs of 1.32 (95% CI, 0.88–1.98), 1.63 (95% CI, 0.86–3.09) and 2.71 (95% CI, 1.12–6.61), respectively (P for trend = 0.019).
    Conclusions: Diabetes may be significantly associated with higher prevalence of paranasal sinus disease in Japanese adults. We should keep this increased risk in mind when a diabetic patient is suspected of having paranasal sinus disease.
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  • Aya Higashiyama, Yoshimi Kubota, Mikio Marumo, Masami Konishi, Yoshiko ...
    Volume 25 (2015) Issue 4 Pages 303-311
    Released: April 05, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: February 28, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Plasma concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to be associated with renal function in Western populations. However, few studies have investigated the association between serum long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA profiles and renal function in a Japanese population with high marine-derived long-chain n-3 PUFA intake.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 549 Japanese rural community-dwellers aged 40 to 64 years. In adjusted analysis of covariance, we assessed the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and tertiles of serum long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA profiles ([eicosapentaenoic acid {EPA} + docosahexaenoic acid {DHA}]:arachidonic acid [AA]). GFR was estimated by Japanese specific equations using serum creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcre and eGFRcys). Using multivariate-adjusted linear regression models, we also assessed the relationships between eGFRs and several n-3 and n-6 PUFAs, which have been suggested to be associated with renal function.
    Results: In all participants, higher dietary fish intake as assessed by a semi-quantitative questionnaire was associated with higher serum value of (EPA+DHA):AA. Participants in the higher (EPA+DHA):AA tertiles had non-significantly higher eGFRcre and significantly higher eGFRcys (P = 0.016). In addition, eGFRcys in T2+T3 of (EPA+DHA):AA was significantly higher than that in T1 (adjusted mean eGFRcys, T1: 87 ml/min/1.73 m2, T2+T3: 91 ml/min/1.73 m2; P < 0.01). Among the PUFAs, only (EPA+DHA) was significantly associated with eGFRcys.
    Conclusions: Serum (EPA+DHA):AA, which reflects an individual’s fish intake, might be associated with eGFRcys in Japanese community-dwellers.
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  • Enbo Ma, Liping Ren, Wensheng Wang, Hideto Takahashi, Yukiko Wagatsuma ...
    Volume 25 (2015) Issue 4 Pages 312-320
    Released: April 05, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: March 21, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the awareness status, attitudes, and care-seeking behaviors concerning tuberculosis (TB) and associated factors among the public in Inner Mongolia, China.
    Methods: A five-stage sampling was conducted, in which counties as the primary survey units and towns, villages, and households as sub-survey units were selected progressively. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect TB information. Complex survey analysis methods, including the procedures of survey frequency and survey logistic regression, were applied for analysis of TB knowledge and associated factors. The sample was weighted by survey design, non-respondent, and post-stratification adjustment.
    Results: Among 10 581 respondents, awareness that TB is an infectious disease was 86.7%. Knowing that a cough lasting ≥3 weeks is suggestive of TB was 26.9%. Knowledge about TB dispensaries in county administrative areas was reported by 68.3% of respondents, and knowledge about the free TB detection/treatment policy was reported by 57.5% of respondents. About 52.5% of participants would stigmatize TB patients. Compared with the majority Han ethnic group, Mongolians and other minorities were 1.52–2.18 times more likely to know about TB curability, TB symptoms, the free detection/treatment policy, and TB dispensaries’ locations, but were less likely to know about the TB transmission mode (odds ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.84). The main sources of TB information were TV (65.6%) and other persons (47.2%). In the past year, 19.7% of TB knowledge was from acquaintances, and 16.1% was from TB institutes.
    Conclusions: Improvement in knowledge about TB risk (symptoms and transmission), the free treatment policy, and facilities is necessary and should be provided through effective multimedia for different target populations.
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  • Chiao-Po Hsu, Wui-Chiang Lee, Hsiu-Mei Wei, Shih-Hsien Sung, Chun-Yang ...
    Volume 25 (2015) Issue 4 Pages 321-331
    Released: April 05, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: March 21, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: No study to date has systematically examined use, expenditure, and outcomes associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to examine ECMO use, expenditure, and outcomes during an 11-year period in Taiwan.
    Methods: Claims data were collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for patients who received ≥1 ECMO treatment between January 2000 and December 2010. Measurements included demographics, indications for ECMO use, length of hospital stay, outcome, and expenditure.
    Results: A total of 3969 patients received ECMO during the study period (median age: 54.6 years). The number of patients receiving ECMO increased from 52 in 2000 to 1045 in 2010. The major indication for ECMO was cardiovascular disease (68.7%), followed by respiratory disease (17.9%). Median length of hospital stay was 13 days in 2000 and 17 days in 2010. Median expenditure (New Taiwan dollars) was $604 317 in 2000 and $673 888 in 2010. Some variables significantly differed by age, sex, hospital setting, calendar year, and indication for ECMO, and were associated with in-hospital and after-discharge mortality.
    Conclusions: ECMO use has increased dramatically in Taiwan over the last decade. The high mortality rate of ECMO users suggested that ECMO may be being used in Taiwan for situations in which it provides no added benefit. This situation may be a reflection of the current reimbursement criteria for National Health Insurance in Taiwan. Refinement of the indications for use of ECMO is suggested.
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  • Bing Zhu, Yasuo Haruyama, Takashi Muto, Takako Yamazaki
    Volume 25 (2015) Issue 4 Pages 332-336
    Released: April 05, 2015
    [Advance publication] Released: March 14, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Background: Metabolic syndrome has received increased global attention over the past few years. Eating behaviors, particularly eating speed, have long been of interest as factors that contribute to the development of obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between eating speed and incidence of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and elderly Japanese people.
    Methods: A total of 8941 community residents from Soka City in Saitama Prefecture, aged from 40 to 75 years and without a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, participated in the baseline survey in 2008 and were followed until 2011. Anthropometric measurements and lifestyle factors were measured at baseline and follow-up. The association between eating speed and incidence of metabolic syndrome was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounding variables.
    Results: During the 3-year follow-up, 647 people were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (25.0 cases/1000 person-years). The incidence rates of metabolic syndrome among non-fast-eating and fast-eating participants were 2.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for incidence of metabolic syndrome in the fast-eating group compared to the not-fast-eating group was 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.60) after adjustment for the potential confounding factors. Eating speed was significantly correlated with waist circumference and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) components of metabolic risk factors. Hazard ratios in the fast-eating group compared with the reference group were 1.35 (95% CI, 1.10–1.66) for waist circumference and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.12–1.67) for HDL-C.
    Conclusions: Eating speed was associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome. Eating slowly is therefore suggested to be an important lifestyle factor for preventing metabolic syndrome among the Japanese.
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