Objectives: Little is known about the risk of pyogenic liver abscess in patients with splenectomy. We explored the relationship between splenectomy and pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan. Methods: We conducted a nationwide cohort analysis using the hospitalization dataset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. We included 17 779 subjects aged 20–84 years who underwent splenectomy in 1998 to 2010 (splenectomy group) and 70 855 randomly selected subjects without splenectomy (non-splenectomy group). Both groups were matched by sex, age, other comorbidities, and hospitalization year of receiving splenectomy. The incidence of pyogenic liver abscess at the end of 2011 was measured. The multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for pyogenic liver abscess associated with splenectomy and other comorbidities. Results: The overall incidence rate was 3.75-fold higher in the splenectomy group than that in the non-splenectomy group (2.15 vs 0.57 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval, 3.57–3.94). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted hazard ratio of pyogenic liver abscess was 3.89 in subjects with splenectomy (95% confidence interval, 3.20–4.72) when compared with subjects without splenectomy. In further analysis, the hazard ratio markedly increased to 14.34 for those with splenectomy and having any of the assessed comorbidities, including alcoholism, biliary stone, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver diseases, and diabetes mellitus (95% confidence interval, 10.61–19.39). Conclusions: Patients with splenectomy are at an increased risk of developing pyogenic liver abscess, particularly when they have comorbid conditions.
Background: The relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and cancer incidence remains unclear. We sought to assess the all-cause and site-specific cancer incidence in patients with T1DM. Methods: A retrospective cohort study design was employed, in which 14 619 patients with T1DM were retrieved from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance medical claims between 2000 and 2007. The study subjects were followed to the end of 2008, and cancer incidence was assessed. We calculated age-, sex-, and calendar year-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of all-cause cancer incidence and site-specific neoplasm incidence, with reference to the general population. Results: Seven hundred and sixty patients were identified for all-cause cancer over 86 610 person-years, representing an incidence rate of 87.75 cases per 10 000 person-years. The incidence rate was higher in males than in female patients (109.86 vs 69.75 cases per 10 000 person-years). T1DM was associated with a significantly increased SIR of all-cause cancer (1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.22). The sex-specific SIR was significantly elevated in female patients (1.19; 95% CI, 1.07–1.33), but the SIR for male patients was insignificantly elevated (1.09; 95% CI, 0.99–1.20). Pancreatic cancer showed the greatest increase in SIR among both male and female patients with T1DM. Male patients experienced significantly increased SIRs for kidney, rectum, liver, and colon neoplasm, and significantly increased SIRs were noted for ovarian, bladder, and colon cancer in female patients. Conclusions: T1DM was associated with a 13% increase in risk of all-cause cancer incidence. Patients with T1DM should be advised to undergo cancer screening for certain types of cancer.
Background: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives: To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November). Methods: We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages) were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%), and parental education. Results: In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions: Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%.
Background: Although impaired cardiac autonomic function is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians, evidence in Asian populations with a lower body mass index is limited. Methods: Between 2009–2012, the Toon Health Study recruited 1899 individuals aged 30–79 years who were not taking medication for diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was used to diagnose type 2 diabetes, and fasting and 2-h-postload glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. We assessed the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Gutt’s insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Pulse was recorded for 5 min, and time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) indices were calculated: the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive difference (RMSSD). Power spectral analysis provided frequency domain measures of HRV: high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and the LF:HF ratio. Results: Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models showed decreased SDNN, RMSSD, and HF, and increased LF:HF ratio were associated significantly with increased HOMA-IR and decreased ISI. When stratified by overweight status, the association of RMSSD, HF, and LF:HF ratio with decreased ISI was also apparent in non-overweight individuals. The interaction between LF:HF ratio and decreased ISI in overweight individuals was significant, with the odds ratio for decreased ISI in the highest quartile of LF:HF ratio in non-overweight individuals being 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.41–3.10). Conclusions: Reduced HRV was associated with insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity. Decreased ISI was linked with parasympathetic dysfunction, primarily in non-overweight individuals.
Background: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is inversely associated with cognitive function. However, it is not known whether baPWV predicts cognitive decline (CD) in later life. We examined whether or not baPWV is an independent risk marker of subsequent CD in a population of older Japanese. Methods: Among 982 adults aged 65 years or older who participated in a baseline survey, 526 cognitively intact adults (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score ≥24; mean [SD] age, 71.7 [5.6] years; women, 57.8%) were followed for a period of up to 5 years. Pulse wave velocity was determined using an automated waveform analyser. Cognition was assessed by the MMSE, and CD was defined as a decrease of two points or more on the MMSE. Results: During an average follow-up of 3.4 years, 85 participants (16.2%) developed CD. After controlling for important confounders, the odds ratios for CD in the highest and middle tertiles of baPWV, as compared with the lowest tertile, were 2.95 (95% confidence interval, 1.29–6.74) and 2.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.11–5.15), respectively. Conclusions: High baPWV was an independent predictor of CD in a general population of older adults and may be useful in the clinical evaluation of elders.
Background: Because of the increasing number of mothers who continue to work after childbirth, participation in childcare has diversified. However, the impact of the main caregiver on children’s habits has not been determined. We sought to examine the effect of caregiver differences on childhood habituation of between-meal eating and body mass index (BMI). Methods: The Ibaraki Children’s Cohort Study involved 4592 Japanese children whose parents answered health questionnaires at age 3. Follow-up questionnaires were distributed to parents when children were 6 and 12 years old and to study subjects directly when they were 22 years old. We compared prevalence of between-meal eating and overweight as well as mean BMI at ages 6, 12, and 22 years, by their main daytime caregiver at age 3. Results: Compared to children cared for by mothers, those cared for by grandparents had a higher prevalence of between-meal eating before dinner for boys and girls at ages 6 and 12 years. At age 22 years, boys cared for by grandparents had a higher prevalence of overweight than those cared for by mothers (18.5% versus 11.2%, P = 0.037), but no such difference was noted in girls. However, both boys and girls cared for by grandparents had higher mean BMI over time than those cared for by mothers (coefficient = 0.47 kg/m2 for boys and coefficient = 0.35 kg/m2 for girls). Conclusions: Being cared for by grandparents at age 3 was associated with subsequent between-meal eating habits, being overweight, and increased mean BMI from childhood to adulthood.