Benzidine (BZ) and beta-naphthylamine (BNA) have been classified as definite human carcinogens for bladder cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to BZ and/or BNA and lung cancer has been inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the risk for lung cancer among workers exposed to BZ/BNA. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that had reported occupational BZ/BNA exposure and the outcome of interest (lung cancer death and/or incidence). Meta-analyses were performed using random effects models to combine standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) or standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). We identified 23 retrospective cohort studies including 1745 cases of lung cancer; only one study reported smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk. A significantly increased lung cancer risk (pooled SMR/SIR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14–1.43) was observed by combining all studies, with significant heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 64.1%, P < 0.001). Effect estimates were higher for studies with direct BZ/BNA exposure (ie, dyestuff and manufacturing industries) (pooled SMR/SIR 1.58; 95% CI, 1.31–1.89), and studies that identified BZ/BNA-associated bladder cancer with SMR/SIR ≥4.7 (pooled SMR/SIR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.35–2.09). Effect estimates were similar for studies with and without concomitant occupational exposure to chromium, asbestos, arsenic, or bis(chloromethyl) ether. The cumulative meta-analysis showed that the evidence of association between occupational BZ/BNA exposure and lung cancer has been stable since 1995. Although the results of this meta-analysis have the potential for confounding by smoking and heterogeneity, our findings suggest that a finding of lung cancer following occupational BZ/BNA exposure should be considered to be a potential occupational disease.
Background: In 2013, an unusually high incidence of biliary tract cancer among current or former workers of the offset color proof printing department of a printing company in Osaka, Japan, was reported. The purpose of this study was to examine whether distance from the printing factory was associated with incidence of biliary tract cancer and whether incident biliary tract cancer cases clustered around the printing factory in Osaka using population-based cancer registry data. Methods: We estimated the age-standardized incidence ratio of biliary tract cancer according to distance from this printing factory. We also searched for clusters of biliary tract cancer incidence using spatial scan statistics. Results: We did not observe statistically significantly high or low standardized incidence ratios for residents in each area categorized by distance from the printing factory for the entire sample or for either sex. The scan statistics did not show any statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence anywhere in Osaka prefecture in 2004–2007. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence around the printing factory or in any other areas in Osaka, Japan, between 2004 and 2007. To date, even if some substances have diffused outside this source factory, they do not appear to have influenced the incidence of biliary tract cancer in neighboring residents.
Background: Moderate alcohol consumption has been reported to be associated with a decreased risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Whether drinking pattern is associated with the risk of proteinuria is unknown. Methods: Study subjects were 9154 non-diabetic Japanese men aged 40–55 years, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, no proteinuria, and no use of antihypertensive medications at entry. Data on alcohol consumption were obtained by questionnaire. We defined “consecutive proteinuria” as proteinuria detected twice consecutively as 1+ or higher on urine dipstick at annual examinations. Results: During the 81 147 person-years follow-up period, 385 subjects developed consecutive proteinuria. For subjects who reported drinking 4–7 days per week, alcohol consumption of 0.1–23.0 g ethanol/drinking day was significantly associated with a decreased risk of consecutive proteinuria (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36–0.80) compared with non-drinkers. However, alcohol consumption of ≥69.1 g ethanol/drinking day was significantly associated with an increased risk of consecutive proteinuria (HR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01–3.14). For subjects who reported drinking 1–3 days per week, alcohol consumption of 0.1–23.0 g ethanol/drinking day was associated with a decreased risk of consecutive proteinuria (HR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.51–1.12), and alcohol consumption of ≥69.1 g ethanol/drinking day was associated with an increased risk of consecutive proteinuria (HR 1.58; 95% CI, 0.72–3.46), but these associations did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Men with frequent alcohol consumption of 0.1–23.0 g ethanol/drinking day had the lowest risk of consecutive proteinuria, while those with frequent alcohol consumption of ≥69.1 g ethanol/drinking day had an increased risk of consecutive proteinuria.
Background: We analyzed population-based injury trends and the association between injury and alcohol consumption patterns in Thailand, a middle-income country undergoing rapid social change. Methods: A nationwide cohort of 42 785 Thai adult Open University students, who were aged 15 to 87 years at enrolment, participated in cross-sectional assessments at baseline (2005) and 8 years later (2013). Incident non-fatal traffic and non-traffic injuries were recorded. Alcohol consumption patterns were categorized as follows: non-drinkers, occasional light drinkers, occasional heavy drinkers, regular drinkers, and ex-drinkers. Logistic regression was used to assess associations in 2005 and 2013 between injuries and alcohol consumption. We adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for socio-demographic factors, stress, health behaviors, and risk-taking behaviors. Results: Incidence estimates in 2013 were standardized to the age structure of 2005: the standardized rates were 10% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.32–9.89) for participants with at least one non-traffic injury and 5% (95% CI, 4.86–5.29) for those with at least one traffic injury. Both standardized incidences for non-traffic and traffic injuries were significantly lower than corresponding rates in 2005 (20% and 6%, respectively). Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with non-traffic injury in 2005, but the association disappeared in 2013. For example, non-traffic injury was associated with regular drinking (adjusted OR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.40) in 2005, but not in 2013 (adjusted OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73–1.10). In both survey years, traffic injury was not associated with occasional heavy drinking when adjusted for health and risk-taking behavior. Conclusions: We examined non-fatal injury and the health-risk transition in Thailand in 2005 and 2013. Our data revealed decreases in alcohol consumption and non-fatal injury in the Thai Cohort between 2005 and 2013. Alcohol-related injury in Thailand today could be amenable to preventive intervention.
Background: The impact of long working hours on diabetes is controversial; however, shift work is known to increase the risk of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and diabetes among civil servants in Japan separately by shift work schedules. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2003 to March 2009. A total of 3195 men aged ≥35 years who underwent an annual health checkup at baseline were analyzed by shift work schedules (2371 non-shift workers and 824 shift workers). Self-reported working hours were categorized as 35–44 and ≥45 hours per week. The incidence of diabetes was confirmed by fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥126 mg/dL and/or self-reported medical diagnosis of diabetes at the annual checkup. A Cox proportional model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing diabetes associated with long working hours. Results: The median follow-up period of non-shift and shift workers was 5.0 and 4.9 years, respectively. During this period, 138 non-shift workers and 46 shift workers developed diabetes. A decreased HR was found among non-shift workers working ≥45 hours per week (HR 0.84; 95% CI, 0.57–1.24); however, shift workers working ≥45 hours per week had a significantly increased risk of diabetes (HR 2.43; 95% CI, 1.21–5.10) compared with those working 35–44 hours per week. An analysis restricted to non-clerical workers also showed similar results. Conclusions: The risk of diabetes associated with long working hours differed by shift work schedules.
Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the association between splenectomy and acute pancreatitis. Methods: We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. We included 7666 subjects aged 20–84 years with first-time acute pancreatitis during the period of 1998–2011 as cases and 30 664 randomly selected subjects without acute pancreatitis as controls. Both cases and controls were matched for sex, age, and index year of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. The association of acute pancreatitis with splenectomy was examined using a multivariable unconditional logistic regression model and reported as an odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: After adjustment for covariables, the adjusted odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 2.90 for subjects with splenectomy (95% CI, 1.39–6.05) compared with subjects without splenectomy. Conclusions: Splenectomy is associated with acute pancreatitis. Further studies are necessary to clarify the underlying mechanism.
The Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and resulting tsunami of March 11, 2011 gave rise to devastating damage on the Pacific coast of the Tohoku region. The Tohoku Medical Megabank Project (TMM), which is being conducted by Tohoku University Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (ToMMo) and Iwate Medical University Iwate Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (IMM), has been launched to realize creative reconstruction and to solve medical problems in the aftermath of this disaster. We started two prospective cohort studies in Miyagi and Iwate Prefectures: a population-based adult cohort study, the TMM Community-Based Cohort Study (TMM CommCohort Study), which will recruit 80 000 participants, and a birth and three-generation cohort study, the TMM Birth and Three-Generation Cohort Study (TMM BirThree Cohort Study), which will recruit 70 000 participants, including fetuses and their parents, siblings, grandparents, and extended family members. The TMM CommCohort Study will recruit participants from 2013 to 2016 and follow them for at least 5 years. The TMM BirThree Cohort Study will recruit participants from 2013 to 2017 and follow them for at least 4 years. For children, the ToMMo Child Health Study, which adopted a cross-sectional design, was also started in November 2012 in Miyagi Prefecture. An integrated biobank will be constructed based on the two prospective cohort studies, and ToMMo and IMM will investigate the chronic medical impacts of the GEJE. The integrated biobank of TMM consists of health and clinical information, biospecimens, and genome and omics data. The biobank aims to establish a firm basis for personalized healthcare and medicine, mainly for diseases aggravated by the GEJE in the two prefectures. Biospecimens and related information in the biobank will be distributed to the research community. TMM itself will also undertake genomic and omics research. The aims of the genomic studies are: 1) to construct an integrated biobank; 2) to return genomic research results to the participants of the cohort studies, which will lead to the implementation of personalized healthcare and medicine in the affected areas in the near future; and 3) to contribute the development of personalized healthcare and medicine worldwide. Through the activities of TMM, we will clarify how to approach prolonged healthcare problems in areas damaged by large-scale disasters and how useful genomic information is for disease prevention.