Many epidemiological studies have assessed the genetic risk of having undiagnosed or of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, the quantitative association of cumulative risk alleles (RAs) of such SNPs with T2DM risk has been unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis is to review the strength of the association between cumulative RAs and T2DM risk. Systematic literature searches were conducted for cross-sectional or longitudinal studies that examined odds ratios (ORs) for T2DM in relation to genetic profiles. Logarithm of the estimated OR (log OR) of T2DM for 1 increment in RAs carried (1-ΔRA) in each study was pooled using a random-effects model. There were 46 eligible studies that included 74,880 cases among 249,365 participants. In 32 studies with a cross-sectional design, the pooled OR for T2DM morbidity for 1-ΔRA was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.19). In 15 studies that had a longitudinal design, the OR for incident T2DM was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.08–1.13). There was large heterogeneity in the magnitude of log OR (P < 0.001 for both cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies). The top 10 commonly used genes significantly explained the variance in the log OR (P = 0.04 for cross-sectional studies; P = 0.006 for longitudinal studies). The current meta-analysis indicated that carrying 1-ΔRA in T2DM-associated SNPs was associated with a modest risk of prevalent or incident T2DM, although the heterogeneity in the used genes among studies requires us to interpret the results with caution.
Background: The potential mechanism underlying the relationship between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remains unclear. The aim of the study was to prospectively investigate the potential role of the adipokines in the association between the MHO phenotype and hypertension in children and adolescents.
Methods: A total of 1184 participants at baseline were recruited from a cohort of the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) study. The participants were classified according to their body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (MS) components. The levels of the adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, were measured.
Results: MHO individuals had higher leptin levels (11.58 ug/L vs 1.20 ug/L), leptin/adiponectin ratio (1.18 vs 0.07), and lower adiponectin (11.65 ug/L vs 15.64 ug/L) levels compared to metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals (all P < 0.05). Compared to metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals, the prevalence of high leptin levels (26.5% vs 0.4%), low adiponectin levels (17.9% vs 6.3%) and a high leptin/adiponectin ratio (26.0% vs 2.1%) was higher in MHO individuals (all P < 0.01). The MHO individuals with abnormal adipokines were significantly more likely to developing hypertension (high leptin, relative risk 11.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–103.35; and high leptin/adiponectin ratio, relative risk 9.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–87.97) compared to metabolically healthy normal-weight individuals with normal adipokine levels.
Conclusions: The abnormal adipokine levels contribute to the increased hypertension risk in MHO children and adolescents. The non-traditional risk factors should be highlighted in MHO children and adolescents in clinical practice and research.
Background: While ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is a recognized risk factor for skin cancer, associations are complex and few studies have allowed a direct comparison of exposure profiles associated with cutaneous melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) within a single population.
Methods: We examined associations between UV exposures and skin cancer risk in a nested case-control study within E3N, a prospective cohort of 98,995 French women born in 1925–1950. In 2008, a lifetime UV exposure questionnaire was sent to all reported skin cancer cases and three controls per case, which were matched on age, county of birth, and education. Analyses were performed using conditional logistic regression and included 366 melanoma cases, 1,027 BCC cases, 165 SCC cases, and 3,647 controls.
Results: A history of severe sunburns <25 years was associated with increased risks of all skin cancers (melanoma: OR 2.7; BCC: OR 1.7; SCC: OR 2.0 for ≥6 sunburns vs. none), while sunburns ≥25 years were associated with BCC and SCC only. While high-sun protection factor sunscreen use before age 25 was associated with lower BCC risk (Ptrend = 0.02), use since age 25 and reapplication of sunscreen were associated with higher risks of all three types of skin cancer. There were positive linear associations between total UV score and risks of BCC (Ptrend = 0.01) and SCC (Ptrend = 0.09), but not melanoma. While recreational UV score was strongly associated with BCC, total and residential UV scores were more strongly associated with SCC.
Conclusions: Melanoma, BCC, and SCC are associated with different sun exposure profiles in women.
Background: Although several studies have shown that blood type O is associated with increased risk of peptic ulcer, few studies have investigated these associations in Japan. We sought to investigate the association between the ABO blood group and risk of gastroduodenal ulcers (GDU) using combined analysis of both retrospective and prospective data from a large cohort study of Japanese women, the Japan Nurses’ Health Study (JNHS; n = 15,019).
Methods: The impact of the ABO blood group on GDU risk was examined using Cox regression analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with adjustment for potential confounders.
Results: Compared with women with non-O blood types (A, B, and AB), women with blood type O had a significantly increased risk of GDU from birth (multivariable-adjusted HR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04–1.34). Moreover, the highest cumulative incidence of GDU was observed in women born pre-1956 with blood type O. In a subgroup analysis stratified by birth year (pre-1956 or post-1955), the multivariable-adjusted HR of women with blood type O was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.00–1.49) and 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98–1.35) in the pre-1956 and post-1955 groups, respectively.
Conclusion: In this large, combined, ambispective cohort study of Japanese women, older women with blood type O had a higher risk of developing GDU than those with other blood types.
Background: Reducing the urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio is important for reducing both blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease. Among free-living Japanese individuals, we carried out a randomized trial to clarify the effect of lifestyle modification for lowering urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device.
Methods: This was an open, prospective, parallel randomized, controlled trial. Ninety-two individuals were recruited from Japanese volunteers. Participants were randomly allocated into intervention and control groups. A month-long dietary intervention on self-monitoring urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was carried out using monitors (HEU-001F, OMRON Healthcare Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan). All participants had brief dietary education and received a leaflet as usual care. Monitors were handed out to the intervention group, but not to the control group. The intervention group was asked to measure at least one spot urine sodium-to-potassium ratio daily, and advised to lower their sodium-to-potassium ratio toward the target of less than 1. Outcomes included changes in 24-hour urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio, sodium excretion, potassium excretion, blood pressure, and body weight in both groups.
Results: Mean measurement frequency of monitoring was 2.8 times/day during the intervention. Changes in urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio were −0.55 in the intervention group and −0.06 in the control group (P = 0.088); respective sodium excretion changes were −18.5 mmol/24 hours and −8.7 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.528); and corresponding potassium excretion was 2.6 mmol/24 hours and −1.5 mmol/24 hours (P = 0.300). No significant reductions were observed in either blood pressure or body weight after the intervention.
Conclusions: Providing the device to self-monitor a sodium-to-potassium ratio did not achieve the targeted reduction of the ratio in “pure self-management” settings, indicating further needs to study an effective method to enhance the synergetic effect of dietary programs and self-monitoring practice to achieve the reduction. However, we cannot deny the possibility of reducing sodium-to-potassium ratio using a self-monitoring device.
Background: The role of passive smoking on cervical carcinogenesis remains controversial. We investigated the association of passive smoking with the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer.
Methods: The study recruited 1,322 women, aged 18–65 with normal cytology (n = 592), CIN1 (n = 420), CIN2/3 (n = 165), and cervical cancer (n = 145) from 2006 to 2009. This study is a cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data from the Korean human papillomavirus (HPV) cohort study. Detailed information on smoking behaviors and lifestyles were collected using questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs).
Results: Passive smoking was not statistically related to the risk of CINs and cervical cancer. However, passive smoking among non-smokers was associated with higher CIN 1 risk (OR 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–2.18), compared to not passive smoking, after adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyles, and oncogenic-HPV infection status. CIN 1 risk increased with longer time exposed to passive smoking (P for trend <0.0003). Multivariate odds of <2 hours/day of passive smoking and that of ≥2 hours/day of passive smoking were 2.48 (95% CI, 1.49–4.14) and 2.28 (95% CI, 1.21–4.26) for CIN 1, compared to not passive smoking.
Conclusions: This study found that passive smoking among non-smoking women is associated with the risk of CIN 1.
Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a common nosocomial infection. However, the effectiveness of antimicrobial catheters in reducing CAUTI in cerebral infarction patients is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether antimicrobial catheters protect against CAUTI in cerebral infarction patients.
Methods: We identified 27,548 patients from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination Database who had been admitted from April 1, 2012 through March 31, 2014 for acute management of cerebral infarction and had used at least an indwelling urethral catheter. We extracted data on patient sex, age, comorbidity, length of stay, activities of daily living (ADL), surgery, hospital case volume, and catheter type. We defined CAUTI as a urinary tract infection arising during admission. We performed multi-level logistic regression analysis to analyze the reduction in CAUTI using antimicrobial catheters.
Results: The rate of CAUTI was 8.8% and 8.3% in the control and antimicrobial catheter groups, respectively. Significant risk factors for CAUTI were age, diabetes requiring insulin therapy, low ADL score, and long hospitalization. Incidence rate was significantly lower in operated cases and those treated with tissue plasminogen activator. For all cases overall, the use of an antimicrobial catheter was not associated with a lower CAUTI rate. However, use was associated with a lower rate of CAUTI in diabetic patients on insulin.
Conclusions: Antimicrobial catheter use was not associated with a lower incidence rate of CAUTI in acute cerebral infarction patients. However, stratified analysis suggested that use was associated with a lower incidence in diabetic patients on insulin.