Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.
Previous systematic reviews of population-level tobacco control interventions and their effects on smoking inequality by socioeconomic factors concluded that tobacco taxation reduce smoking inequality by income (although this is not consistent for other socioeconomic factors, such as education). Inconsistent results have been reported for socioeconomic differences, especially for other tobacco control measures, such as smoke-free policies and anti-tobacco media campaigns. To understand smoking inequality itself and to develop strategies to reduce smoking inequality, knowledge of the underlying principles or mechanisms of the inequality over a long time-course may be important. For example, the inverse equity hypothesis recognizes that inequality may evolve in stages. New population-based interventions are initially primarily accessed by the affluent and well-educated, so there is an initial increase in socioeconomic inequality (early stage). These inequalities narrow when the deprived population can access the intervention after the affluent have gained maximum benefit (late stage). Following this hypothesis, all tobacco control measures may have the potential to reduce smoking inequality, if they continue for a long term, covering and reaching all socioeconomic subgroups. Re-evaluation of the impact of the interventions on smoking inequality using a long time-course perspective may lead to a favorable next step in equity effectiveness. Tackling socioeconomic inequality in smoking may be a key public health target for the reduction of inequality in health.
Background: Dizziness is one of the most common complaints in medicine and a frequent symptom among older people. Dizziness has a considerable impact on life quality and is associated with high economic costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dizziness in the general population and to describe its clinical characteristics and associated factors.
Methods: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea. We evaluated data for 12,653 participants (5,450 men and 7,203 women), aged 40 years and above, whom participated in the KNHANES between 2010 and 2012.
Results: In the age group over 40 years old, the 1-year prevalence of dizziness was 20.10%. Dizziness was more prevalent among women (25.18%) than among men (14.57%; P < 0.001) and the prevalence rate increased with age (P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, female sex, older age, serum triglyceride level, experience of depression, limited functional status owing to visual acuity impairment, limited physical performance, smoking, alcohol consumption, and perception of stress were independently associated with dizziness.
Conclusions: In our study, the prevalence of dizziness in the general population was 20.10%. There was a stronger relationship between dizziness and physical performance, chronic diseases, and health behaviors compared to that with otologic diseases. Interventions for dizziness should be approached in a multifactorial manner and an understanding of various factors is necessary for the prevention and management of this condition.
Background: Although beneficial associations have been reported between moderate alcohol intake and the serum lipid profile, it is unclear whether polymorphisms in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes can modify these associations. Here, we assessed the effects of ADH1B His48Arg (rs1229984), ALDH2 Glu504Lys (rs671), and their combination on these associations. Furthermore, we examined if the findings for ALDH2 could be replicated.
Methods: We categorized 889 male participants in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study into two groups based on presence or absence of minor allele(s) or four groups based on genotype combinations. We performed regression analyses of serum lipid concentrations on alcohol intake, with multivariable adjustment. The replication study was conducted among 2,562 men in the Shizuoka part of the J-MICC Study.
Results: The ALDH2 Glu/Lys or Lys/Lys groups showed significant decreases in serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with increasing alcohol consumption; the coefficient per intake increase of 10 g/day was −2.49 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], −3.85 to −1.13), and a significant interaction with the polymorphism was confirmed (P for interaction = 0.006). This inverse correlation was more evident among the ADH1B His/His + ALDH2 Glu/Lys or Lys/Lys groups (−3.24 mg/dL, 95% CI, −5.03 to −1.45). Serum triglycerides were positively associated with alcohol consumption in the ADH1B His/His group (P for interaction = 0.020). The stronger association between serum LDL cholesterol and alcohol consumption in the ALDH2 Glu/Lys or Lys/Lys groups was replicated.
Conclusions: The ALDH2 Glu504Lys polymorphism can modify the association between alcohol intake and serum LDL cholesterol in Japanese men.
Background: Nutrients have been proposed to be related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aims of this study were to identify dietary patterns that correlated with several nutrients using reduced rank regression (RRR) and to examine the association between extracted dietary patterns and prevalence of MetS in a Japanese population.
Methods: The study population comprised 1,092 Japanese men and women (35–69 years old) who had participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study in Tokushima Prefecture. Dietary patterns were derived with RRR using 46 food items as predictors and six established nutrients (potassium, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, insoluble dietary fiber, and carotene) as response variables. Associations between extracted dietary patterns and MetS were then examined with logistic regression models.
Results: Among the six dietary patterns, dietary pattern 1 (DP1) explained the largest proportion (60.1%) of variance in the six nutrients. Therefore, only DP1 was selected for further analysis. DP1 was characterized by high intake frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish and small fish, natto (fermented soybeans), and deep-fried tofu. After adjustment for potential confounders, significant inverse associations were found between DP1 score and MetS (odds ratio [OR] for each quartile: 1.00, 0.58, 0.60, 0.52; Ptrend = 0.02); DP1 and high blood pressure (Ptrend = 0.0002); and DP1 and high blood glucose (Ptrend = 0.02).
Conclusion: A dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, fish and small fish, natto, and deep-fried tofu was associated with reduced prevalence of MetS in a Japanese population.
Background: The prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) among employed adults has not been reported using a large sample. To clarify the actual status of addictive Internet use among employed adults, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of IA and at-risk IA among employed adults in Japan.
Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed all junior and senior high school personnel in Shimane Prefecture, a rural area in Japan. Eligible participants included 3,211 junior and senior high school personnel (1,259 men and 1,952 women). Participants completed a questionnaire on their activities and factors related to Internet use.
Results: The prevalence of IA and at-risk IA was 0.03% and 4.82%, respectively. Furthermore, game playing was shown to be the Internet activity most closely associated with at-risk IA.
Conclusions: This study showed that around 5% of school personnel in a rural area in Japan are at risk for developing addiction to the Internet and that using the Internet for game playing is related to at-risk IA. Our results suggest that employed adults should be instructed to use the Internet properly.
Background: Many epidemiological studies have indicated a positive association between coffee intake and lung cancer risk, but such findings were suggested to be confounded by smoking. Furthermore, only a few of these studies have been conducted in Asia. Here, we investigated the association between coffee intake and lung cancer risk in one of the largest prospective cohort studies in Japan.
Methods: We investigated the association of coffee drinking and subsequent incidence of lung cancer among 41,727 men and 45,352 women in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study using Cox proportional hazards regression, with adjustment for potential confounders and by strata of smoking status. Coffee and other dietary intakes were assessed once at baseline with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).
Results: During 1,481,887 person-years of follow-up between 1990 and 2011, a total of 1,668 lung cancer cases were identified. In a multivariate regression model, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of lung cancer (HR 1.16; 95% CI, 0.82–1.63; Ptrend = 0.285 for men and HR 1.49; 95% CI, 0.79–2.83; Ptrend = 0.942 for women). However, there was a significant increase in the risk for small cell carcinoma (HR 3.52; 95% CI, 1.49–8.28; Ptrend < 0.001).
Conclusion: Our prospective study suggests that habitual consumption of coffee is not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer incidence, despite observing a significant increase in the risk for small cell carcinoma.
Background: This retrospective cohort study primarily aimed to investigate the possible association of computer use with visual field abnormalities (VFA) among Japanese workers.
Methods: The study included 2,377 workers (mean age 45.7 [standard deviation, 8.3] years; 2,229 men and 148 women) who initially exhibited no VFA during frequency doubling technology perimetry (FDT) testing. Subjects then underwent annual follow-up FDT testing for 7 years, and VFA were determined using a FDT-test protocol (FDT-VFA). Subjects with FDT-VFA were examined by ophthalmologists. Baseline data about the mean duration of computer use during a 5-year period and refractive errors were obtained via self-administered questionnaire and evaluations for refractive errors (use of eyeglasses or contact lenses), respectively.
Results: A Cox proportional hazard analysis demonstrated that heavy computer users (>8 hr/day) had a significantly increased risk of FDT-VFA (hazard ratio [HR] 2.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–6.48) relative to light users (<4 hr/day), and this association was strengthened among subjects with refractive errors (HR 4.48; 95% CI, 1.87–10.74). The computer usage history also significantly correlated with FDT-VFA among subject with refractive errors (P < 0.05), and 73.1% of subjects with FDT-VFA and refractive errors were diagnosed with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
Conclusions: The incidence of FDT-VFA appears to be increased among Japanese workers who are heavy computer users, particularly if they have refractive errors. Further investigations of epidemiology and causality are warranted.