We estimated the cigarette consumption among Japanese adolescents based on the data which was obtained from a 1990 nationwide school-based questionnaire survey of smoking prevalence among high school students. Cigarette consumption for adolescents was estimated using the data on current smokers* rate and cigarette consumption per day. Participants were 57, 189 high school students (aged 13-18 years) including 4666 current smokers. The estimated adolescents* consumption was calculated at 3.5 to 4.3 billion units in 1990. The proportion of adolescents* consumption to the total sales was 1.1 % to 1.3%. The corresponding tax amounted to between 21 and 25 billion yen in 1990. The difference between the total sales and the crude cigarette consumption for adults has increased gradually over 20 years. Logically, some part of this increase should be attributed to cigarettes consumed by adolescents. The increase in this difference seemed to keep pace with the increasing number of cigarette vending machines. These results indicate that a considerable amount of cigarettes were consumed by adolescents in 1990. J Epidemiol, 1999; 9 : 56-60
A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 12, 195 male radiological technologists who received the occupational exposure to low dose radiation over a long term. A total of 1, 097 deaths including 435 from cancer were ascertained by Koseki and death certificates from 1969 to 1993. Cancer mortality among the study population was basically compared with that of whole Japanese men. The significant low SMRs were obtained for all cancers, stomach and lung cancer partly due to Healthy Worker Effect, unlike the results of the early reports with some inappropriateness in the methods. Apparent high risks of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers were observed, although none of site-specific cancers revealed the statistically significant increase. For these cancers, the SMRs among old sub-cohort were somewhat higher than those of young sub-cohort, whereas similar SMRs for solid cancer were obtained between the two subcohorts. The SMR for leukemia reached statistically significant level of 1.75 (95%CI:1.07-2.71) when using whole professional and technical workers as a standard population. The study results might suggest that the chronic exposure to low-dose radiation enhanced the risk of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. J Epidemiol, 1999 ; 9 : 61-72
Mammographic density patterns, which refer to the distribution of fat, connective, and epithelial tissued in the healthy female breast, have been shown to be related to breast cancer risk. We used a quantitative method to assess mammographic densities in 41 mammograms from women in Japan without a diagnosis of breast cancer. Information about reproductive behavior and family history for breast cancer was available from a questionnaire. The statistical analysis applied Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression. The breast size as measured on the cranio-caudal view of the mammogram was approximately 12% larger, the size of the dense areas was 20% smaller, and the mean percent mammographic densities were 30% greater among premenopausal than among postmenopausal women. We found a strong relation between age at menarche and mammographic densities in premenopausal women and significant associations for age, family history of breast cancer, and age at menopause with mammographic densities in postmenopausal women. These preliminary data will be used to plan a future study that will compare mammographic density patterns and the relative importance of dietary, reproductive, and anthropometric factors between women in Japan and in the United States. J Epidemiol, 1999 ; 9 : 73-77
On the basis of 351 one-day weighed diet records, we selected foods/recipes contributing to nutrients of interest for a data-based food frequency questionnaire by contribution analysis and multiple regression analysis. Total fat was largely of animal and vegetable origin, irrespective of analytic methods. Saturated fatty acid was mostly from animal and vegetable sources according to contribution analysis, and that of animal origin was the main contributor by multiple regression analysis. Mono-unsaturated fatty acid was substantially supplied by animal and vegetable products by either analytic method. Poly-unsaturated fatty acid, n-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid and linoleic acid were found to be of vegetable origin and chicken egg according to contribution analysis; while vegetable oil and mayonnaise were the major contributors to variance in intake. Arachidonic acid was, however, mostly provided by animal sources including chieken egg and fish, irrespective of analytic methods. N-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids and a -linolenic acid were of vegetable and marine origin. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were particularly from marine products, irrespective of analytic methods, except for chicken egg in docosahexaenoic acid by contribution analysis. Cholesterol was of animal and marine origin by either analytic method. Thus, foods contributing to absolute intake and variance in intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol differed considerably. J Epidemiol, 1999; 9 : 78-90
Style of breakfast (western- or Japanese-style) and taste preferences were associated with various diseases in some epidemiological studies in Japan. To evaluate what are measured by asking these dietary behaviors, we administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) and asked style of breakfast and taste preferences to a subsample of residents in Takayama City, Gifu, Japan. Style of breakfast and total diet were studied in a random sample of 346 residents. There were no statistically significant differences in the nutrientintakes estimated from SFFQ between those with western- and Japanese-style of breakfast except for crude fiber. Taste preferences were asked to 555 men and 1, 130 women who attended a health check-up program in the community. Salt intakes were slightly higher (<3%) in those who had a favor for salty food than the others in both sexes. Fat or carbohydrate intake was similar between those stratified by preference for greasy or sweet foods. The data suggest that western-style of breakfast is not associated with western diet, in general, i.e., high-calorie and high-fat diet. Intakes of salt, fat, or carbohydrate appear to be unrelated to preferences for salty, greasy or sweet foods, respectively. J Epidemiol, 1999 ; 9 : 91-98
Cross-sectional associations between biological, clinical and behavioral factors and serum uric acid (SUA) levels were examined in 2, 438 Japanese male office workers aged 20 to 59 years in Osaka, Japan. Stepwise regression analysis for SUA was carried out for all persons and repeated excluding those under medication for hypertension, hyperuricemia or diabetes mellitus. The results were essentially the same without change in the sequence of the seven most important variables. When 150 men under medication were excluded, independent correlates with SUA levels were, in order of relative importance, history of gout, log triglyceride, creatinine, hemoglobin A, . (negative association), body mass index, total protein, alcohol intake, age (negative association), and total cholesterol. 32.7 percent of total variation in SUA was accounted for by these variables combined. Our data suggest that weight and serum lipids control and avoiding excessive drinking may be beneficial in the prevention of hyperuricemia. J Epidemiol, 1999 ; 9 : 99-106
The purpose of this study was to specify the most accurate, reliable and valid techinque for a general sexual behavioral survey in Japan. This pilot study was conducted to assure a high response rate and to keep respondents' privacy confidential by using an anonymous questionnaire survey technique. The sample (360 potential respondents) was selected randomly from basic resident registers in two geographically different areas. From the registries, 90 residents, aged 20 to 49 years old, were randomly selected to represent each sex from each area. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups each having a different procedure of requesting the completion of the survey and providing the questionnaires : (1) Postal Group, (2) Telephone Group, and (3) Face-to- face Group. The survey was carried out from October 1995 to February 1996. Effective response rates for the above mentioned three groups were 69.2%, 69.2% and 55.8%, respectively. It is difficult to determine the best method when only considering the effective response rates. However, judging from our effort and expense, the mail survey is the best possible procedure and would be a reasonable method for a national sexual behavior survey. J Epidemiol, 1999 ; 9 : 107-113
Objectives: to determine trends and associated risk factors of HIV incidence (1989-1997) in a drug abuse treatment clinic in northern Thailand where HIV is epidemic Design: retrospective cohort study Methods: Nine-years (1989-1997) of data (excluding names) from the logbook of drug abusers seeking treatments in Mae Chan Hospital in Chiangrai Thailand, were transcribed and doubleentered into separate computer files which were later validated against each other. For each patient, the dates of the first HIV negative, the last HIV negative, and the first HIV positive were determined. A retrospective cohort of drug users who were initially HIV-negative and treated for more than once was constructed. HIV seroconversion was assumed to follow a uniform distribution between the last negative and the first positive HIV tests. The incidence rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: Of the 378 repeat patients, 16 (4.2%) HIV seroconverted. This is equivalent to 5.11 per 100 person-years of observation (PYO) (95%C1=3.13-8.35). The incidence remained relatively stable over the study period while the prevalence was on the decline. The younger, Thai lowlanders, drug injectors had higher incidence rates than the older, ethnic minorities and drug smokers, respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence can give illusional results. It is necessary to know baseline HIV incidence to monitor and evaluate an HIV intervention program. J Epidemiol, 1999 ; 9 : 114-120
Personality of targeted individuals can be assumed to influence behavior modification by health education. In this study the influence of personality on health consciousness was analyzed by a questionnaire for lifestyle, health consciousness, and the NEO-FFI personality test. Subjects were 942 new students in the Tokyo University of Agriculture who were surveyed in April, 1998. Separately performed health examination data were used to verify reliability of answers to the questionnaire. Among students, 83.2% of males and 90.4% of females felt themselves to be healthy, and more than 80% students desired to improve their health more. The rate of having no physical complaints, however, was only 31.7% in males and 20.4% in females. Distribution of NEO-FFI scores of neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), openness (0), agreeableness (A), and conscientiousness (C) corresponded well between males and females, except for significantly higher scores of O and A in females. Odds ratios (ORs) between high and low tertial points of NEO-FFI score for health consciousness were significantly elevated in the high scoring groups of E and C (OR=6.26, 95%CI=1.46-26.82, and OR=6.04, 95%CI=1.42-25.71, respectively) in males. On the contrary, high N and 0 groups had low health consciousness. Smoking habit was associated with high E scores (OR=2.24, 95%CI=1.13-4.43). Dietary habits, regular eating time, and avoidance of salty foods were associated with high C scores in both males and females. The OR of regular eating time was 2.66 (95%C1=1.42-1.98), and 2.20 (95%C1=1.31-3.71) for males and females, respectively. The OR of avoidance of salty foods were 2.09 (95%CI=1.11-3.91), 1.87 (95%CI=1.11-3.16) for males and females, respectively. Significant associations between lifestyle and personality require further study for risk association analysis and for relationship to interventive practices for prevention of lifestyle associated diseases. J Epidemiol, 1999 ; 9 : 121-131
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