The Wingless and Int-1 (WNT) and bone morphogenic protein/growth differentiation factor (BMP/GDF) signalling pathways contribute significantly to the development of the musculoskeletal system. The mechanism by which they contribute is as follows: BMP/GDF signalling usually promotes tendon differentiation, whereas WNT signalling inhibits it. We hypothesised that inhibiting WNT and subsequently stimulating BMP signalling may enhance the tenogenic differentiation of stem cells. The objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of WNT inhibitor (KY02111) and BMP12/GDF7 protein could enhance the differentiation of bone marrow-derived equine mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-eMSCs) into tenocytes. Cells were cultured in five treatments: control, BMP12, and three different combinations of BMP12 and KY02111. The results indicated that a 1-day treatment with KY02111 followed by a 13-day treatment with BMP12 resulted in the highest tenogenic differentiation score in this experiment. The effect of KY02111 is dependent on the incubation time, with 1 day being better than 3 or 5 days. This combination increased tenogenic gene marker expression, including SCX, TNMD, DCN, and TNC, as well as COL1 protein expression. In conclusion, we propose that a combination of BMP12 and KY02111 can enhance the in vitro tenogenic differentiation of BM-eMSCs more than BMP12 alone. The findings of this study might be useful for improving tendon differentiation protocols for stem cell transplantation and application to tendon regeneration.
The objective of this study is to analyze the relationships between the age and blood test results or body sizes in Noma horses by using the results of periodical health examination. Out of 45 hematological or physical items examined, statistically significant, but loose correlations were observed in 14 items. Red blood cell count, activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine kinase, concentrations of calcium and inorganic phosphorus decreased with aging. Conversely, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, lipase activity, γ-globulin and chloride concentrations, body height, chest circumference and cannon bone circumference increased with aging. The changes in a few items seemed unique to Noma horse. However, most age-related changes found in this study might be considered as a common trend in horse breeds rather than distinctive characteristic in Noma horse.