As for this study, 1) Reproductive structural theory, 2) Class of farmer's resolution theory, 3) Reconstruction theory, the preceding research was rearranged, while this study presented an opinion based on the same. "Reproductive structural theory" fulfilled an important role in mediating the explanation related to the method of Japanese capitalism. "Class of farmers resolution theory" shows many differences depending upon the feature of the research field, such as agriculture and forestry. Of course, as for the "Class of farmers resolution theory", an equivalent number of theories was shown in the reconstruction and view. However, that differs significantly when viewing the actual state and the cause thereof was discussed without any correlation between the "reproductive structure" and the "polarization of farmers". The polarization of farmers theory results in every respective special field being refined. This study involves rearranging from an integrated range of vision; hence we consider reconfiguration to become necessary. Namely, as shown in the following description. The Japanese Countryside is being dismantled due to the postwar Heteronymous reproduction structure. This is a problem of the influence from outside, rather than that of the countryside. Reconfiguration is the social responsibility of the total structure and hence does not affect the countryside alone. The reconfiguration involves reproduction taking place in the potential countryside.
"Forest environment tax", a new tax system that Kochi Prefecture introduced for the first time in the whole country is a very epoch-making tax in that 30 other prefectures followed Kochi and introduced a similar kind of tax. In this article, the decision process of introducing a forest environment tax was clarified. The main adjustment in the policy decision process existed in the taxation formula and the usage of the tax. The main actors in the policy decision process were the Tax Affairs Division that was aggressive to introduce a new tax, and the Forestry Subdepartment that worked together in the final scene. It was verified that the policy decision process meant not the process to pursue ideal policy tools for a certain policy purpose, but the process of selecting the policy tools to achieve a certain policy purpose smoothly.
Between 1982 and 1996 the governments of the United States and Canada went through three periods of trade disputes regarding soft wood lumber before reaching a Softwood Lumber Agreement (SLA). While the SLA, which lasted until 2001, temporarily resolved the trade disputes, it left many issues unresolved. This paper analyzes what caused the SLA to expire, why it could not be extended and what kind of role the public television broadcast played. In addition to the existing literature, this paper will review the political developments, including the role of interest groups, in the US-Canada lumber dispute. It is argued that pressures on both sides of the Canadian-United States border lead to the collapse of the SLA. The softwood dispute was initially broadcasted as a problem mainly in the US. The tone changed in 1987 when the issue was linked to Canadian sovereignty and employment in the local communities. It is demonstrated that the media played a role in forming the public discourse by highlighting unemployment issues in the discussion.
The Kenyah people have been largely dependent on the collection of NTFPs and the practice of swidden agriculture. Therefore, they manage resources based on their customary rules to assure resource security. Decentralization policy in 1999 has granted the district government broader authority to create policies related to resource management that may either strengthen or undermine customary resource management (CRM). Field work was conducted in three Kenyah villages in 2006 to conduct interviews with 93 individuals. The objective of the study is to evaluate the importance of boundaries in CRM under decentralization policy. Results suggest that decentralization has increased boundary conflicts over resources among the Kenyah and also between the Kenyah and other Dayak groups. Boundaries are regarded as very important in resource management, and the Kenyah communities have adopted the strategies necessary to secure collective rights over resources by clarifying 'outer' boundaries. In urbanized Kenyah communities, CRM is not as rigorous due inevitably to factors such as individual claims over land and heterogeneity in ethnicity of landowners. To secure individual rights, most of the individual lands have been certified, which is regarded as clarification of 'inner' boundaries.